Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University

Graduate School of CoreEthics and Frontier Sciences
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Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University

Vol. 5 2009
English Abstracts in text
(Please find the PDFs from the index page for the final versions with Japanese full paper)

The Dynamism of the "Nikkei" Category after the Amendment of Japanese Immigration Law in 1990: The Process of "Giving Names"

This paper inquires into how recognition of an ethnic group by the state effects that group, by looking at both the problem of Nikkei workers and the creation of the teijusha (long-term-resident) visa through a 1990 revision of Japanese immigration law. In particular, how did the new visa create "Nikkei" as a legal category? And how has this legal categorization influenced the people who use this name? In order to approach these problems, I use the concept of "giving names" raised by Uchibori [1989] in ethnic studies.

Even though the word "Nikkei" does not appear in the law, the fact that the government classifies certain people into this category has led to these people being described as "Nikkei." This, in turn, has led to ambiguity in the use of the term "Nikkei" in academic literature, because "Nikkei" has developed a double-meaning as (1) a legal category and (2) people of Japanese descendant.

Fukuda [2003] insists that researchers should distinguish between "Nikkei" as an ethnic group and "Nikkei" as a legal category in academic discussions. Against this argument, this paper presents a case study about "false Nikkei" that shows that Nikkei people, themselves, use the legal category as a category of "Nikkei."

Keywords: Nikkei category, revision of Japanese immigration law, false Nikkei, giving names, teijusha visa

Korean Laborers in the Construction of the Kyonbu Railroad
OMURA Yoichi

This paper considers the role that the civil engineering construction industry of Japan in the Meiji period played in the modernization of Korean farmers through the construction of a colony railroad in Korea. The political and economic factors of the movement of Korean laborers from the countryside have already been demonstrated. However, the relationship between Japanese management and Korean labor and the construction of the Kyonbu railroad (from Seoul to Busan) has not fully been demonstrated yet. This paper is based on records of a Japanese engineer who participated in the construction of the railroad.

The civil engineering construction industry of Japan introduced the newest technology to construct tunnels and bridges on the Kyonbu railroad. About 4,500,000 or more Korean laborers, of whom many were farmers unrelated to modern labor, participated in the construction work in return for Japanese money and coupons, giving them their first experience of a commodity based economic system and making them, in effect, modern paid workers.

It has so far been thought that Japan used forced labor to construct Korean railroads. However, Korean laborers' wages increased 4 times between 1901 and 1910. Therefore, Korean laborers' wages may have been determined by the relation of supply and demand.

Keywords: Kyonbu railroad, civil engineering construction industry of Japan, commodity economy, Korean laborers, coupon

The Development of the Intractable Disease Association of Shiga: An Example of the Patients' Rights Movement

The purpose of this article is to describe, as an example of the patients' rights movement, the second period in the history of the Intractable Disease Association of Shiga (Shigananbyoren).

Shigananbyoren is an alliance of intractable disease patient groups in Shiga Prefecture. Shigananbyoren has submitted a Request for Social Welfare Measures to Shiga Prefecture every year since 1984, and it began to receive an annual subsidy for operating expenses from the prefecture in 1985. This subsidy was increased in 1994 by 400,000 yen to 900,000 yen. In response, in fiscal year 1995, Shigananbyoren started the Intractable Disease Peer Consultation System, which it has managed to the present. In 1996, Shigananbyoren was able to set up an office in the Shiga Medical Center for Children. In the same year, Shigananbyoren demanded that Shiga Prefecture withdraw a white paper advocating the reorganization and consolidation of public health centers. (The prefecture's idea, however, was eventually carried out.)

Moreover, during this period, Shigananbyoren was involved in the intractable disease patient movement outside the prefecture. Specifically, it participated in the nationwide movement against revisions of the health insurance system.

Keywords: Intractable Disease Association of Shiga, patients' rights movement, intractable disease, funds, intractable disease consultation

Examination of Money Lending by The People's Bank from the Perspective of the Capability Approach:
Comparing The People's Bank with Grameen Bank

The People's Bank (Shomin-Kinko) was a small-money lending institution with a social policy of supporting the economically deprived in prewar Japan. This paper examines the lending of The People's Bank to make clear whether its method of lending money actually supported impoverished people and low-income earners. This paper examines The People's Bank from the perspective of the Capability Approach, and it compares The People's Bank with Grameen Bank, a representative of the microfinance institutions of today.

This paper explains two differences between The People's Bank and Grameen Bank from the perspective of the Capability Approach. First, The People's Bank had a more limited group of users than Grameen Bank. For example, The People's Bank did not lend money to women and beggars, unlike Grameen Bank, which lends money to such people in Bangladesh today. Second, the money lending of The People's Bank promoted war. The People's Bank lent money to men that cooperated with the government for war. Therefore, The People's Bank limited its users' freedom to live as they wished. In conclusion, this paper makes it clear that the money lending of The People's Bank did not go far in supporting impoverished people and low income earners.

Keywords: The People's Bank (Shomin-Kinko), Capability Approach, method of lending money, Grameen Bank

Gender and Body Construction in Edo Period Kabuki
Galia Todorova GABROVSKA

This article delineates a general pattern in the development and the characteristics of gender and body construction in kabuki theatre in the context of Japanese premodern urban commoner culture. The paper consists of three parts. The first part poses the main research questions and outlines the contemporary conceptualisations of gender, body, power and performance which provide the theoretical approach to the present discussion. The second part examines kabuki as a main site for performance of the notions of femininity and masculinity during the Edo and early Meiji periods and roughly defines three stages in this process: formative, mature and modern. It is argued that kabuki played a central part in consolidating Tokugawa gender notions and hierarchies, on the one hand, by producing a "world" of conventionalised gender representations, and in disrupting them, on the other, by constantly playing with those conventionalised gender constructs and destabilising any fixed meanings. The third part of the paper outlines the specifics of gender construction in Edo period kabuki, which, as the Edo urban popular culture per se, had two sides: traditional and carnivalesque. This article contributes to the further study of kabuki from a gender perspective, an aspect not thoroughly explored yet.

Keywords: kabuki, gender, body, construction, Edo period

The Representation of Family in Military Literature: Focusing on
Comparing Lu Jiang's and Zhang DaChun's Literary Works

This thesis focuses on the representation of the family in military literature to clarify the historical background and position in society of veteran soldiers in Taiwan.

To indicate the context of the formation of military literature in Taiwan, this research is based on historical materials and literary texts. As for literary texts, the works of two authors with different backgrounds, Lu Jiang and Zhang Dachun, are compared and contrasted.

While the Taiwanese author, Lu Jiang, aims to depict veteran soldiers as assailants of women in the making of a family, the mainland author, Zhang Dachun, tries to depict the loneliness and wretchedness of veteran soldiers in his work. Although the making of a family may seem different in their works, they share a few common points. In both works, the veteran soldiers tend to view the family they have right now as a substitute for the family they lost in the past, and the making of their families eventually meets with failure.

By depicting the veteran soldiers' attempts to form a family and their setbacks in the process, these works of military literature aim to record the lives of marginalized veteran soldiers in Taiwan society in the 1980s.

Keywords: military literature, family, diaspora, Lu Jiang, Zhang Dachun

Anthropologists Discuss the History of "Others": A Consideration of the
Model of Subjectivity in the Study of Oral Tradition
KONDO Hiroshi

We discuss the model of subjectivity which anthropologists use, especially in two ethnographies and an article written by Levi-Strauss. All of these analyze oral tradition to try to inquire into the influence of "white man" on groups of Amerindians .

In the two ethnographies, we can find a model of subjectivity that attempts to describe "primitives" as a historical entity. In order to find the continuity of subjectivity in the history of contact with white man, the anthropologists use a model of subjectivity inspired by verbal communication. In the two ethnographies, we find that anthropologists find that kind of subjectivity in the process of communication through their fieldwork experience. On the other hand, Levi-Strauss adapted his way of analyzing myths to discuss the qualitative change of subjectivity that came through contact with white man. He did not describe the historical identity of the Amerindian but produced a history of irreversible change that occurred through contact with white man. When we consider the fact that anthropology is a product of the white world, or modern world, Levi-Strauss' suggestion connotes the possibility of a new way of describing the history of "others" which leads to a reconsideration of the history of modernity for Amerindians.

Keywords: anthropology, Levi-Strauss, subjectivity, history, oral tradition

Effect of Taiwan Railways on the Taiwanese Economy:
Historical and Economic Context of Taiwan Railways
TSAI Cheng-Lun

There is little previous research on the relationship between the Taiwanese economy and Taiwan Railways, and there may be no previous papers that focus on the subject exclusively.

To focus on the relationship between the economy and the railways, this paper investigates two historical periods by analyzing the changes in the total quantity of typical commodities and the export quantity of the same commodities from major ports, and it looks at a third period by looking at freight and highways to show the situation of Taiwan Railways.

The economy and the railways both experienced expansion in the 20 years centered on 1908, because rail connections to ports led to increases in exported commodities. In connection with WWⅡ, both the economy and the railways declined during the 20 years centered on 1945, as evidenced by the reduction by half of principal commodities. However, from 1960 to the present, although the economy expanded, Taiwan Railways fell behind highways, airlines and Taiwan High Speed Rail. The economic and transportation changes in this period are reflected in passenger and freight volume shifts on Taiwan Railways.

Nowadays, Taiwan Railways still has significant influence in passenger transportation, but it must innovate to deal with competition like THSR.

Keywords: Taiwan Railways, Taiwanese economy, innovate, development, national enterprise

Why Do Basic Income Advocates Support Basic Income?:
Comments on Pragmatic and Principled Cases for Basic Income

The purposes of this paper are 1) to consider the distinction between pragmatic cases for basic income and principled cases for basic income, a distinction that was introduced by Barry [1996] and is accepted in basic income debates without serious critics, and (2) to propose how to argue for basic income convincingly. It is held that basic income is a policy which aims to serve some social values or ends. If these values and ends could be achieved more efficiently by other policy alternatives, which seem to be proposed or pointed out frequently, it seems, then, that there is no reason to firmly implement basic income. If basic income proponents, nonetheless, aim to implement basic income, are there any reasons to do so? If there are, how should basic income proponents argue for basic income? My answer for these questions is that basic income proponents should push basic income as an institution, not as a policy, because basic income should not be a mere policy, of which its implementation is judged by empirical data, but, rather, it should be part of the basic structure of a society, as it is needed by all members of the society.
Keywords: basic income, Philippe Van Parijs, guaranteed minimum income, political philosophy, public policy analysis

On Literacy, Language and the Academic Achievement of Deaf Children
with Cochlear Implants

The author surveys and assesses the literature on the positive and negative relationships among literacy, academic achievement and the various characteristics of deaf children with cochlear implants. This paper includes the following topics: (1) the differences between deaf children with and without cochlear implants in terms of literacy and academic achievement; (2) the extent to which deaf children with cochlear implants catch up with hearing children in their literacy and academic achievement; (3) the effect of early intervention for deaf children through an intensive education program and cochlear implantation; (4) the effect of the use of American Sign Language (ASL) and English in deaf education programs. By analyzing these topics and the results of previous literature, the author comes to the conclusion that earlier studies have revealed almost nothing because of research defects, such as small samples, omitted variables and reverse causation.

Keywords: deafness, cochlear implants, literacy, sign language

A Study of the Arrangements for the Executioner in Beheadings:
From the Statutes of the Edo Era to the Penal Code of the Meiji Era

The first purpose of this paper is to reveal who, under the statutes of the Edo era and the penal code of the Meiji era, were given the duty of executing condemned criminals by beheading. The second is to criticize a previous paper about executioners by Masaki Akira, who influenced the anti-death penalty movement.

To these ends, the author shows the arrangements for executioner in those times by examining Kinseigyoukeishikou which Masaki prefaced. Then, the author finds three important facts describing executioners. First, the status of not only the condemned criminal but also the executioner was related to the grade of the death penalty in the Edo era. Second, executioners did not work inside the jails in the Edo era. This can be seen in the third fact that the status of Yamada Asaemon, the most famous executioner of the time, changed from nongovernmental worker in the Edo era to governmental employee in the Meiji era.

Although executioners were arranged for as mentioned above, Masaki produces the misinterpretation that all executioners in the Edo era were hinin (outcast people). The author believes that we need a better history of executioners, as even Masaki mistook the arrangements for executioners.

Keywords: executioner, death penalty, jail, Yamada Asaemon, Masaki Akira

1 #16
Discussion Guidelines Concerning Infants Born with Congenital Diseases

In 2004, regarding decision-making for infant patients with congenital diseases, a research group of the Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued a "discussion" guideline and replaced the "classification" guideline issued earlier.

This paper (1) reviews how the new guideline was made and is being used, and (2) compares the Japanese situation with a recent court case in the UK where the validity of a discussion guideline was discussed extensively.

While the new Japanese guideline encourages both medical providers and the patients' parents to engage in the process of decision-making in order to discover the "best interest" of infant patients, few institutions actually follow the guideline. In the UK, on the other hand, although the guideline emphasizes the importance both of mutual trust between medical providers and parents and of the patient's "best interest," because it classifies diseased infants by specifying "five situations," the discussion guideline in fact functions as a classification guideline. In addition, the UK guideline allows legal courts to intervene in cases where opinions differ between parents and medical providers.

I conclude that the Japanese guideline honors the families' opinions better than the UK guideline because the former leaves the final decision to the parents and medical providers.

Keywords: discussion, guideline, infants born with congenital diseases, neonatal medicine, mutual trust

Influence of Gender Bias on Self-Decisions Concerning Surrogacy

This article examines the ethical conditions for protecting people from the influence of gender bias in decision-making about surrogacy from the perspectives of feminism and gender.

Gender bias in relation to surrogacy includes the following conditions: 1) that the social structure demands all women to give birth inevitably; 2) that pregnancy, delivery and childcare are entirely the responsibility of women; 3) that some women may be compelled by a feeling of self-sacrifice to become pregnant and give birth.

To avoid gender bias, it is recommended that a special institution, where sincere judgments can be made, should be established. This institution should promote information gathering, consultations, exchange of opinions, common understanding, exclusion of control and self-decision making. In this institution, staff and applicants for surrogacy should listen carefully to the stories and experiences of women; moreover, all the people concerned, including the client of the surrogate mother, should express how they will share the negative effects of pregnancy and delivery.

Keywords: surrogacy, self-decision, gender bias, ethical condition, sharing negative effects

Double Count Method in Employment of Disabled Persons:
Criticisms and Recommendations

The Double Count Method allows an employer to count one disabled worker as two disabled workers, if the disability can be categorized as severe, and if the worker is employed over 30 hours a week. However, this method exaggerates the ratio of disabled persons employed. Therefore, the official employment rate of disabled persons in Japan is higher than the actual percentage of disabled persons employed within the workforce. This paper seeks a better method for counting the employment of disabled persons, by showing how the Double Count Method was established, outlining the problems concerning this method and presenting the views of both corporations and the Japan National Assembly of Disabled People's International (DPI). The paper also presents two alternative approaches for the counting of disabled workers: one focuses not on a disabled worker's degree of disability, but on the disabled worker's ability to work; the other gives credit to development in a disabled worker's ability to work. The artificially inflated disabled worker ratio would be reduced by these methods. The author shows that, if the employment rate of disabled persons could be counted by both alternative methods, it is possible to improve upon the Double Count Method.

Keywords: employment rate of disabled persons, Double Count, degree of disabilities, worker's ability

The Background to Changes in the Framework of Permission for
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in Japan

This article investigates into the politics under which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was introduced to Japan, particularly in the period from 1998, when the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology provided the guideline, to 2004, when the Society first permitted the practice.

Despite strong criticism from women's and disabled people's organizations, the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology started PGD, hoping to reach a social consensus on this issue by restricting the use to only diagnosing for the disease genes of serious inherited diseases. However, some sterility clinics, without waiting for permission from the Society, started preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormality from around 2002. Simultaneously, research institutions, like university hospitals, recognized that diagnosing for disease genes is not sufficient for choosing an embryo good enough for transplantation and, therefore, decided that PGS is necessary.

Through such a process, the meaning of "selecting a fertilized egg" shifted from "selecting life" to "selecting a suitable embryo for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET)," and thus the social meaning of PGD also changed. Around 2004, it shifted from "a way to prevent giving birth to babies with an inherited disease" to "a way to cure sterility" and even to "the pursuit of happiness by women (and their husbands)."

Keywords: preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), prenatal diagnosis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, politics

Roles and Functions of a Campus NGO in International Medical Aid
Programs: A Case Study of a University Project for Buruli Ulcer in Japan

Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and characterized by terrible lesions. The exact mode of transmission is still unclear. Surgery with amputation has been the main treatment against the disease, and numbers of patients have suffered from disabilities as a result of the treatment. Currently, researchers recognize the combination of antibiotics and surgery is effective in treating Buruli ulcer but knowledge of the disease is still limited.

The problems of Buruli ulcer are not only medical. Researchers have pointed out that non-medical factors, such as economics, religion, politics or the lack of social capital, can make it difficult for patients to receive appropriate treatments against the disease.

For over ten years, the Kobe International University Project for Buruli Ulcer has been tackling the nonmedical
factors related to the disease. The framework of their activity is research in the endemic area of the
disease in order to plan and carry out effective support. The purpose of this study is to investigate how
international NGOs can support the people who struggle with Buruli Ulcer.

Keywords: Buruli ulcer, Save the Children of Buruli Ulcer (Project SCOBU), Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative (GBUI), nongovernmental organization (NGO), neglected tropical diseases

Talkie Animation by J. O. Studio

As animation studios today are mainly located in Tokyo, little attention has been given to the fact that Kyoto was also an important base for animation production during the 1930s. Using cinema magazines of the period, such as Kinema Jumpo, this paper brings the flourishing of animation productions in Kyoto to light. Animation production in Kyoto was related to the establishment of the J. O. Studio in the city in 1933. J.O. Studio was equipped with the latest talkie machines and put great efforts into producing talkie animations. In addition, the studio also lent a hand to other animation creators working in Kyoto with talkie animation techniques. As this was during the period when Japanese animation shifted from silent animation to talkie animation, talkie animations produced in Kyoto attracted much attention. In this way, the growing popularity of talkie animation and the activities of J. O. Studio were the main reasons why the production of animation flourished in Kyoto.

Keywords: J. O. Studio, talkie, animation, D?eisha, Kon Ichikawa

Choice-Theoretic Models of Terrorists

America attacked Afghanistan and Iraq as counterterrorism to the terrorism on September 11, 2001. However, terrorism has not been resolved yet. Some people have the feeling that the amount of terrorism has increased and they question America's war on terror. This paper introduces some ideas about the relation between terrorists' behavior and counterterrorism. Landes(1978) defined terrorists' expected utility of hijacking and made empirical research. His analysis gave the following result: when the security at an airport made it a high probability that terrorists would be arrested, the number of hijackings decreased. However, some terrorists have chosen suicide terrorism, because deterrence strategy has made it very difficult for terrorists to hijack in order to achieve their political aims. Next, this paper picks up Frey and Luechinger(2003). They suppose that governments have two possible strategies, a deterrence strategy and a benevolence strategy. While many people agree to a deterrence strategy, Frey et al. do not agree, because a hostile relation between terrorists and the government leads to more conflict. Instead, Frey and Luechinger(2003) argue that counterterrorism is better achieved by a benevolence strategy, in which, for example, a government might urge terrorists to participate in an election or a seminar about politics.

Keywords: terrorism, expected utility, deterrence strategy, benevolence strategy

The Rise of Antidepressants: Psychiatric Discourse in Japan
from the 1950s to the 1970s

This paper examines the changes in psychiatric discourse and practice that led to the spread of antidepressants for the psychiatric treatment of depression.

The paper analyzes (1) the change in psychiatric theory towards a positive evaluation of antidepressants by psychiatrists in medical textbooks in the 1960s and 1970s; (2) the change in psychiatric practice that occurred with the rise of antidepressants, when psychotropic drugs began to be compared with electric shock treatment; (3) the influence of Katei No Igaku (Family Medicine), a medical manual which introduced psychiatrists' ideas about the causes of and treatments for depression to laypeople.

In the 1950s, antidepressants were discovered by chance. In the 1960s, medication was not the dominant psychiatric treatment choice, but, in the 1970s, antidepressants became the main choice for psychiatric treatment. The idea that psychiatric disease originates in the organ of the brain emerged from 19th century German psychiatry. When psychiatric pharmacology developed, however, there arose a new discourse that psychiatric disease is caused, instead, by biochemical substances within the brain. This removed vague fears of psychiatric disease, because psychiatric drug treatment worked on the substances within a brain disorder and antidepressants treated depression based on biochemical evidence.

Keywords: psychotropic drugs, antidepressants, psychiatric discourse, discourse analysis

Kawai Saburo's Works in Colonial Taiwan: Annexation Policies for One
Japanese Writer in Taiwan
MATSUO Norifumi

In the 1940s, some Japanese writers in Taiwan promoted policies mobilizing Taiwanese for war. Such policies can be considered annexation policies. The purpose of this thesis is to identify Kawai Saburo as being a writer who wrote about the contradiction in these annexation policies.  

This thesis analyzes two types of his works. In the first type, for instance, "A Certain Time" (1941) or "Engagement" (1942), only Japanese appear in the story. The Japanese suffer from oppression by power, the death of a lover by the war and so on.

The second type, represented by "One Reduced Drawing"(1942), depicts the relations between Japanese and Taiwanese. The Taiwanese in this work, however, never become intimate with the Japanese. In this work, three junior high school students, two Japanese and one Taiwanese, promise to meet again 20 years later, and indeed, at the end of this story, they meet as they had promised. But they can meet only in the arena of warfare, and the relations between them are unequal and defined by the class structure of the military.

Kawai depicted the contradictions that existed both among Japanese and between Japanese and Taiwanese under the annexation policies.  

Keywords: annexation policies, total war, Japanese-born-in-Taiwan, integration of Taiwanese and Japanese

Trends in the Discourse in Japan about the Clubhouse Model

This paper focuses on the Clubhouse Model of psychosocial rehabilitation. Specifically, the paper investigates the relationship in Japan between the evolution of research into the Clubhouse Model and the evolution of mental health services. Many Japanese studies pay attention to the concepts of "membership" and "partnership" as the distinguishing characteristics of the Clubhouse Model, but membership and partnership are seldom put into actual practice in Japan. Regarding mental health welfare, experts lead the practice, and experts also conduct the research, so even though those early researchers had the right opinion about membership and partnership, they lack the viewpoint of clubhouse members, which has led to inadequacies in the theory of membership and partnership. It is necessary that studies about the concepts of membership and partnership be conducted by both experts and laypeople.

Keywords: Clubhouse Model, early research, mental health service, membership, partnership

The Historical Significance of the Existence of a Women's Liberation
Group Opposing Gender Equalitarianism: Practices and Assertions of
the Women's Movement in Kyoto against the Employment Equality Act

After 1978, the women's liberation movement of Japan split over the Employment Equality of Men and Women Act. One part of the movement tried to actively participate in legislation by lobbying political parties. The other opposed the law on the grounds that it would create a gap between elite female employees and other women. This thesis examines in detail the thoughts and practices of the anti-legislation group, because it is little known in the history of feminism, as it was in the minority on this issue. To this end, the author makes an historical analysis based on leaflets issued by the group.

One hundred and fifty women formed the Executive Committee Opposing Deterioration in the Labor Standards Law in Kyoto in 1979. They identified themselves as working for authentic women's liberation and groped for the direction of the movement. Through energetic analysis and discussions with the women who sought the legislation, the group hardened their opposition to the legislation and criticized the other camp for merely seeking to acquire limited equality. The group aimed at total liberation for women, so they denied the policy of promoting equality between women and men in employment as a form of elitism and meritocracy.

Keywords: women's liberation, Employment Equality Act, equality between women and men, women's empowerment, division of women

The Idea of Conservation Development: A Study of Social Groups'
Confrontation over Hetch Hetchy Valley

Past studies of the controversy over the development of a reservoir in the Hetch Hetchy Valley (HHV) of Yosemite National Park have mostly concerned the confrontation between the ideas of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot. This paper focuses, instead, on how the idea of conservation developed in the interactions between three social groups: the Sierra Club, headed by Muir, the Roosevelt Administration, of which Pinchot was a member, and the City of San Francisco, which pushed for the dam.

The results, based on historical documents, are as follows. (1) The City of San Francisco's proposal to build a dam in the HHV started a long debate between the City and the Sierra Club, which opposed the dam, about equity in using natural resources. (2) The Roosevelt Administration attempted to balance the public interests of protecting and developing national parks since many groups in the West wished to develop those lands. (3) To obtain public support, the Sierra Club's campaign against the dam in the HHV was based on aesthetic conservatism and not opposition to the building of dams in general. The author asserts that in the end, the Sierra Club fell into aesthetic value relativism, which reduced the group's persuasiveness.

Keywords: conservation, Gifford Pinchot, John Muir, Hetch-Hetchy controversy, Forest Service

About Odake Chikuha, a Japanese-style Painter who was Influential in
Futurism: For a Better Understanding of Fukiya Koji, a Lyric Painter

In this paper, I look at the artistic activity of Odake Chikuha (1878-1936), to shed light on Odake's student in Japanese style painting, Fukiya Koji (1898-1979), who later became known as a lyric painter who painted the figures of young women for more than half a century.

Odake's artistic activity can be divided into three sections, and I focus on the middle section (1907-23), which was most important in his artistic activity and the period when Fukiya was studying with him. I try to make clear Odake's influence on Fukiya by analyzing two of Chikuha's works, The Visit (1910), a traditional Nihon-ga painting, and Moisture of the Moon, Heat of the Sun, Iciness of the Star (1920), which was influential in futurism.

Odake had an active role in Japanese art history, but until recently he had been forgotten. Now we can point out that Odake had a connection to futurism, one of the new art movements in the Taisho era. As Fukiya studied under Odake at that time, we can see Fukiya's apprenticeship in a new light and give Fukiya an important place in art history.

Keywords: Fukiya Koji, Odake Chikuha

Fukiya Koji's Lyric Paintings: His Parisian Period and Animations for

Fukiya Koji(1898-1979) is known as a lyric painter of illustrations; besides this, however, he painted pictures in Paris and was in charge of the original pictures for the animation film Yumemi-Doji. This paper describes his student days in Paris, and his making of the animation film, giving particular attention to and analysis of two works, A Child of Mixed Race and his Parents(1926) and Yumemi-Doji(1958).

Fukiya had been ignored in art history from his death to the early 1990s. But in the latter half of the 1990s, Fukiya's works from his stay in Paris were evaluated, and he has come to be recognized as one of the Japanese painters in the Ecole de Paris. Meanwhile, Yumemi-Doji has either been ignored or evaluated negatively. However, I can find two roles that it played at Toei Animation in the 1960s. First, Fukiya's style of painting embodied a new standard for Toei Animation, which was trying to be the "Disney of Orient." Second, it was the first animation film to use made-in-Japan ink.

Fukiya's pictures from his stay in Paris and his work on Yumemi-Doji are different forms, but they both exhibit the Japanese qualities and lyricism which are characteristics of Fukiya's paintings.

Keywords: Fukiya Koji, Japanese painters of Ecole de Paris, Yumemi-Doji

The Problems of Social Theory about Discrimination:
The Theories of Albert Memmi and Iris Young

Referring to the theories of Memmi and Young, this paper points out three inadequacies in social theory about discrimination. Memmi's definition of discrimination is often mentioned in sociology. Nevertheless, many sociological arguments neglect Memmi's key insights into the structural processes in which discrimination is generated. The arguments about discrimination by Young, who is widely regarded as a leading theorist of radical democracy, are also often referenced in sociology, particularly in discussions of the theory of justice. What is often overlooked, however, is that she replaces the concept of "discrimination" with that of "oppression" and that she advocates collective action and social policy based on groups. She regards oppression as structural exclusion that reinforces dominant institutions. Moreover, she thinks of social movements and affirmative action as effective means to intervene in the social structure and institutions. Considering the above, the author points out that social theory about discrimination is generally flawed because of (1) inattention to the relation between discrimination and social structure, (2) misplaced emphasis on collective action for correcting discrimination and (3) misconception of social policies as the cause and effect of interactions between social movements and institutions.

Keywords: social discrimination, oppression, underclass, Albert Memmi, Iris Young

Reception in Kyoto of the Concept of "Art" Promoted
by the National Government in the Meiji Period:
Exhibitions, Antique Art Dealers and a "Museum" in Kyoto

This paper attempts to shed light on the activity of antique art dealers in Kyoto during the early Meiji period and their reception of the concept of "Art," which the national government at the time was promoting in Kyoto. The research is based on newspaper articles and official documents of the time.

From 1871, an event known as the Kyoto Exhibition was held almost annually. It was a venue where manufacturers and antique art dealers participated in screening and exhibiting items. However, antique art dealers were driven out from the management of the Kyoto Exhibition in the wake of the National Industrial Exhibitions (Naikoku Kangy. Hakurankai), which were designed under the influence of the concept of "Art" sponsored by the national government. Consequently, art dealers established their own exhibition hall in Kyoto's Higashiyama area to sell and display their products. This paper focuses on the figure of Seisuke Ikeda, an art dealer who ended up building his own "museum" in the Higashiyama area.

Along with Ikeda, many other Kyoto art dealers also seem not to have been able to effectively harmonize their traditional concept of Japanese art with the newly developed concept of "Art" sponsored by the government.

Keywords: Meiji period, Kyoto, art dealer, exhibition, Higashiyama

Quality of Life Intended by Legal Medical Treatment of Gender
Identity Disorder and Quality of Life Expected by Gender Identity
Disorder People: From an Interview with One Male-to-Female Person

In Japan, guidelines for Gender Identity Disorder (GID) started in 1998. Doctors engaged in GID treatment say that it is important to improve the quality of life (QOL) and the satisfaction of patients. However, some GID people have had surgery that ended in an unsatisfactory result.

For this paper, I interviewed a Male To Female (MTF) transsexual, A, who experienced two GID treatments, one under guidelines and one an illegal treatment, and asked her about the change in her QOL and how she feels about her QOL in daily life. First, A went to Okayama University Hospital and had a treatment under guidelines, but she suffered harassment from her doctor. A was displeased and finally had sex reassignment surgery (SRS) illegally. A did not feel any improvement in her QOL from the treatment under guidelines. Also, the SRS was accompanied by great pain, so A did not think her QOL had improved by the surgery itself. Changing the body does not always improve the QOL of GID people.

We should not use the convenient expression QOL in a loose manner, but should define the idea of QOL clearly, for instance, by making guidelines with patients. The guidelines should be based on GID people's experience and feelings.

Keywords: gender identity disorder, quality of life, sex reassignment surgery, guidelines, male-to-female

A Possibility of Communication with "Different Bodies":
Contemporary Dance as a Clue

We naturally supplement oral communication with body language. For some people with disabilities, however, their body language does not help when their oral communications break down.

This study focuses on how a contemporary dance workshop can be used as a space for providing us with the "experience of mutual bodily responses," which will give us the chance to know others as well as to become aware of ourselves.

Looking at the history of dance, I clarify the way in which something other than "beautiful bodies and their movements" can be endorsed, and the process of how this may connect to the acceptance of disabilities. I pay attention to western style dance, contemporary dance, Japanese butoh dance and what butoh dancer Hijikata Tatsumi calls suijaku-tai.

A contemporary dance workshop cannot only affirm the reality of our bodily existence but also show us the body as a basis of communication. There the body of a person with a disability is not considered to be something that needs to be "taken cared of" or "cured." It is a space where a "handicapped body" is transformed into a "body of real presence," a body that we can really encounter.

Keywords: contemporary dance, butoh, workshop, handicapped person, basis of communication

The Use of the "Nikkei" Category in Academic Literature after the
Amendment of Japanese Immigration Law in 1990

The term "Nikkei" has generally referred to people of Japanese offspring living outside of Japan. However, since the late 1980s, many Nikkei people have come to Japan to work as unskilled laborers and have brought their families with them. An amendment of Japanese immigration law in 1990 created the teijusha (long-termresident) visa, which made it easier for grandchildren of Japanese nationals and their spouses come to Japan. From the viewpoint that the official recognition of an ethnic group by the state would have a significant influence on that group, I review the Nikkei worker literature.

In previous studies, researchers often use the word "Nikkei" to refer to legal migrant workers, because they can get the teijusha visa. This has caused "Nikkei" to have the following two meanings: (1) an ethnic group of Japanese lineage, and (2) a legal status established in 1990.

These two meanings of "Nikkei" are not distinguished clearly in academic discourses and "Nikkei" is utilized according to the context. This means there can be no clear answer to the question "who are Nikkei?" If researchers are free to choose and use arbitrarily the name of the people about whom they study, do their arguments have any significance?

Keywords: Nikkei category, revision of Japanese immigration law, Brazilian people working in Japan, residence qualification

A Consideration about Mythologique
KONDO Hiroshi

In this article, we try to discover a way of reading Le´vi-Strauss to understand what he does in Mythologique. It seems to be hard to understand what Le´vi-Strauss does in this series. In order to evaluate the range of his study, we intensively read vol.1 and vol.2 of Mythologique by considering the way it organizes a huge amount of Amerindian myths.

We discuss four concepts. The first is the problem of "collective subjectivity" in ethnographic description. The next three are "binary opposition," "transformation" and "code" in Mythologique. In Mythologique, Le´vi-Strauss re-organizes a huge amount of myths collected by anthropologists and missionaries, and in doing so Le´vi- Strauss is able to release myths from the concepts of ethnic or cultural identity. Instead, he creates a new way of reading myths utilizing other concepts. First, Le´vi-Strauss tries to read the myths of others as comprehendible stories by finding the mechanism that works in myth, binary opposition. Next, he finds that the relations among myths from various groups form the viewpoint of transformation. Then, he discusses specific codes which most of the myths use to make the binary oppositions. With these concepts, Le´vi-Strauss shows not what myths mean but how the myths are told.

Keywords: anthropology, Le´vi-Strauss, Mythologique, code, transformation

Independent Living for People with Disabilities in Berkeley, California

In 1962, a small group of severely disabled students at the University of California, Berkeley started the Independent Living (IL) movement for people with disabilities. At first they began independent student life by using attendants in Cowel Hospital on campus, and then they tried to make dormitories and private housing accessible. They also pushed for a barrier-free university and for support systems for disabled students, like referral services for attendants and apartments. The IL movement then spread from the university to Berkeley City.

In this paper, three severely disabled people living independently in Berkeley are described by the author on the basis of interviews with them by Takehiro Sadato in 1989. The author also tries to demonstrate how the idea of the IL movement influenced the interviewees.

The interviewees were questioned about their personal histories, their attendants and their ideas about independent living. According to the interviews, it was difficult for them to live independently because of insufficient economic aid, problems in everyday life with their attendants and other difficulties. Nevertheless, they seemed to have rich lives in Berkeley, because disabled people there could benefit from being in a barrierfree city and sharing in other disabled people's barrier-free spirit.

Keywords: 1989, Berkeley City, independent living for severely disabled people, barrier-free, public assistance system

A Comparison of Tagore's Nationalism and Sun Yat-sen's The Three
Principles of the People
from the Perspective of Nationalism
NIU Geping

This paper compares Rabindranath Tagore's Nationalism and Sun Yat-sen's The Three Principles of the People from the perspective of nationalism, understood in a broad sense. The similarities and differences of Tagore's and Sun's conceptions of nationalism are explored from three aspects: understandings of the Western nation state, the relationship between the West and the East as well as the connection between this relationship and problems specific to their own countries. Concerning the first point, both Tagore and Sun describe the Western nation state as a machine, but they have radically different attitudes towards it. Concerning the second point, both criticize the injustice of the West's oppression of the East, but they understand its origin differently. Concerning the third point, both emphasize the morality of Eastern culture, but they have very different social ideals and see their home countries' problems differently. In conclusion, while Tagore denies the legitimacy of the Western nation state and of nationalism, Sun largely believes that China should follow the Western model and develop its own nationalism in order to build a strong modern nation state.

Keywords: Rabindranath Tagore, Sun Yat-sen, Nationalism, The Three Principles of the People, nationalism

Refugee Policies of Canada and their Problems: Focusing on the
Resettlement Program
MOTOOKA Hirokazu

Most refugees end up in refugee-camps, where they cannot enjoy their rights. To protect them, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has established a program that resettles refugees in safe third countries. However, not many countries are eager to accept refugees and most are sent to the U.S., Canada or Australia.

In this paper, I outline the refugee policies of Canada, and I show some of the problems of the policies. Particularly, I note the importance of Canada's private sponsor program for resettlement. In this program, private sponsors must take responsibility for the whole resettlement process, from the selection of resettlement candidates from abroad to the integration of the resettled persons into Canada. Under this program, refugees are able to acclimate to the local society where they resettle, because they live there and are assisted by private sponsors. However, it takes about 35 months to be accepted to this program. One of the reasons for this is the high number of applications. This problem is true of not only the resettlement program but also of refugee applications from within Canada. In order to reduce the number of applications, Canada tends to enforce strict border security and tightly inspect the admission of refugees.

Keywords: refugee policies of Canada, resettlement, private sponsor program, number of applications, border security

2009.4.27 up, 2009.7.27 revise Copyright(c) Ritsumeikan Univ. All rights reserved.
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