Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University

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Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University

Vol. 6 2010
English Abstracts in text
(Please find the PDFs from the index page for the final versions with Japanese full paper)

The Japanese Reform Movement of Psychiatric Medicine and
Anti-psychiatry Thought in the 1970s
ABE Akane

The concept of Anti-psychiatry originated in the 1960s in Europe and was introduced to Japan in the 1970s. In those days, the Japanese psychiatric medicine field was in the middle of a movement to reform psychiatric medicine, and the concept of Anti-psychiatry caused a variety of arguments unique to Japan. For this paper, I researched general assembly proceedings of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and writings of psychiatrists in those days, and I interviewed doctors who were involved in the reform movement. The paper focuses on why the Japanese psychiatric medicine field was interested in the concept of Anti-psychiatry. While conservative psychiatrists believed that the cause of schizophrenia is a physical condition in the individual body, the psychiatrists who agreed with Anti-psychiatry found the cause in social systems. The Japanese doctors joining the reform movement of psychiatric medicine acknowledged the existence of people with schizophrenia as they are, and they questioned why people with schizophrenia were excluded from society. But they did not find the answer for that question in the concept of Anti-psychiatry; thus, they only referred to it but did not accept it.

Keywords: Anti-psychiatry, Japanese reform movement of psychiatric medicine

The Burden Felt by Living Donors for Liver Transplantation and Their
Responsibility: An Analysis of Interviews Regarding the Process of
Choosing a Donor from Relatives and Family Members

This study clarifies experiences unique to organ donors and examines the organ donors' decision-making processes and their family members' views on organ transplantation. The paper is based on semi-structured interviews with nineteen donors and analyzes the results of four cases. Family members regarded living donor liver transplantation as the only life-saving measure for a patient but also as a gamble with chance and uncertainty. Since a person who becomes an organ donor has to bear the heavy burden all by oneself, family members of recipients felt they had to donate their organs. However, some were apparently forced to be donors rather than doing so by their own will. Even when they volunteered to donate their organs, the interests of family members and others, as well as the relationships and dynamics of the family, weighed on their decisionmaking. The family assigns itself the burden and responsibility of donating the organ, and then the family members must struggle among themselves over who should take responsibility.

Keywords: living donor liver transplantation, liver transplantation, organ transplantation, donor, family

Muscular Dystrophy Wards: Issues Related to Long-term Care Facilities
in Japan
ITO Kayoko

This paper examines the lives of muscular dystrophy patients who have been raised in long-term care facilities. In Japan, hospitals which can provide this kind of long-term care tend to be located in rural areas, and these facilities lack sufficient staff to provide adequate care. There is a general belief that long-term care wards are a drain on hospital resources; therefore, long-term care is undertaken by the government through seisaku iryo (government administered treatments). There are patients who live in hospitals or institutions even though they do not want to, because they cannot receive sufficient care at home. The fact that the social welfare system and medical services in present day Japan do not enable those who want to live at home to do so is a problem which requires an immediate solution. Given the current circumstances, however, it is likely that there will still remain those who must receive long-term care in institutions. This paper addresses the subject of future policies regarding long-term care for people with severe disabilities by elucidating the sort of policies which make long-term care possible, the current financial and administrative circumstances of hospitals and the situation of those receiving long-term care.

Keywords: muscular dystrophy, long-term recuperation, government administered treatment

An Empirical Study on the Cost of Making Text Data of Books: Aiming
to Improve the Reading Environment for the Visually Impaired

For the visually impaired to read books, information accessibility through methods such as Braille transcription, transliteration and production of books' text data must be guaranteed. However, information accessibility is currently insufficient for visually impaired students in higher education. To improve this situation, we compare methods of making books' text data in this paper. We demonstrate (a) how text data can be made accurately and at low cost through preformed desktop publishing (DTP) data and (b) the cost of making text data using image scanners and optical character reader (OCR) software. We tested (a) and (b) on two research papers of about the same length, one with text only, the other with illustrations. Regarding (b), we also experimented with the use or not of the OCR software's layout function, and we compared the time and cost of making text data relative to the type of document and the use or not of the layout function. In conclusion, we proved that the working hours and proofreading load for making text data can be greatly reduced by obtaining DTP printing-data from publishers or print shops. Also, when text is transcribed with OCR software, proofreading work can be reduced by using the layout function carefully.

Keywords: reading environment for the visually impaired, desktop publishing (DTP), optical character reader (OCR), making of text data, cost comparison

An Analysis and Consideration of Horimono: In Relation to Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori by Utagawa Kuniyoshi

The development of Japanese tattooing and the creation of horimono and its concept are said to be profoundly related to the popularity of the famous Chinese novel Suikoden (Tales of the Water Margin). It was around 1827 when Utagawa Kuniyoshi's work, Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori (The 108 Heroes of the Popular Suikoden), was published. This pioneering series of nishiki-e (polychrome woodblock prints) depicted characters with whole body tattoos of motifs from Suikoden. These nishiki-e became popular partly because of the Suikoden boom in the literary world at the time. It is said that Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori established the genre of musha-e (warrior prints). This was not only because of the popularity of Suikoden, but also because this visualization of the Japanese hero image had strongly influenced the public. I believe Kuniyoshi's prints in Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori represented the outlaw hero images that Edo people demanded at the time, in addition to the original hero images of the story itself. In this paper, I analyze the meaning of horimono, Kuniyoshi's intentions in using horimono in his designs and the effects he desired in adding the horimono.

Keywords: tattoo, Utagawa Kuniyoshi, Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori, Tales of the Water Margin, outlaw hero

Horimono in Kamigata Ukiyo-e: Yakusha-e in Natsumatsuri Naniwa
by Umekuni and Hokushū

This paper focuses on the fact that horimono were represented in Kamigata Ukiyo-e at an early stage by Syunkōsai Hokushū (dates unknown) and Toyokawa Umekuni (dates unknown). These ukiyo-e were published in 1823 and were based on the kabuki play Natsumatsuri Naniwa Kagami, in which Nakamura Utaemon III (1778-1838) played as the main actor. Horimono appeared in these works by Hokushū and Umekuni before they appeared in Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, which had been believed in previous studies to be the first ukiyo-e with horimono. In this paper, first, I analyze and consider their works, and the motifs and composition of their horimono, in order to decipher the meaning and the origins of horimono. Second, I study the influence of Edo on Nakamura Utaemon III and the situation surrounding Kamigata Ukiyo-e. From this study, I prove that horimono was represented in Kamigata Ukiyo-e before Tsūzoku Suikoden Gōketsu Hyakuhachinin no Hitori, and present a hypothesis on how horimono came to be represented in Kamigata Ukiyo-e.

Keywords: tattoo, Kamigata Ukiyo-e, Hokushū, Umekuni, Natsumatsuri Naniwa Kagami

Resistance to Black Slavery in Maryse Condé's Moi, Tituba sorcière…

Previous research on Maryse Condé's Moi, Tituba sorcière… has not focused on the theme of resistance to black slavery. This paper attempts to illuminate the novel's depiction of the black characters' hardships in slavery and their resistance to slavery itself. Using Gabriel Entiope's categories, revolt, escape, superficial obedience, resistance to rape, hostility to whites and abortion are regarded as forms of resistance to slavery. Furthermore, this resistance is divided into "male resistance" and "resistance particular to females," and the details of each gender's form of resistance are analyzed. In the novel, black male resistance aims at liberation from slavery by revolt, escape or superficial obedience. But the females are alienated from this black male resistance, because the females are not as physically strong as the males, and the female slaves are subjugated by the male slaves. Moreover, the black females are obliged to experience hardships exclusive to their sex, such as resisting rape by whites or undergoing an abortion. In Moi, Tituba sorcière…, the female slaves exist in a more severe situation than the males. According to Condé, she wrote the novel because the male chauvinism, intolerance, prejudice and racism that oppress Tituba still prevailed in the 20th century.

Keywords: black slavery, resistance, rape, Maryse Condé, feminism

Reconsideration of Minyakuyakkai: Nakae Chomin and the Reader's
OKADA Kiyotaka

Nowadays most people read books silently, but in the early Meiji era people often read aloud. Readers read the text to listeners, and thus both sides could understand it. Moreover the text was sometimes paraphrased using colloquial expressions. Hence, phonetic reading produced an audience that transcended differences in dialect or culture. This essay examines Minyakuyakkai (1882), a translation by Nakae Chomin of Rousseau's The Social Contract. Researchers have tended to overlook the impact of phonetic reading in disseminating the text's ideas as widely as possible. This essay focuses on how Western knowledge and the thoughts of Rousseau or Nakae might have been transmitted in successive readings of Minyakuyakkai through various styles of reading. Nakae wrote Minyakuyakkai in kanbun, the high literary style of classical Chinese, but he also affixed special marks to the text to allow the reader to change the kanbun to the kanbun-kundoku style, which was a widely used writing system of the time and which allowed kanbun to be read with Japanese phonetics. Nakae also added translation notes to the text. Nakae's explanations and use of kanbun-kundoku style made it easy for the reader to paraphrase Minyakuyakkai into colloquial expressions. In this way, Minyakuyakkai involved plural texts.

Keywords: Minyakuyakkai, Nakae Chomin, theory of readers, phonetic reading, kanbun (classical Chinese)

History of Animation Technology in Early Video Games
OBANA Takashi

From "Prevention of Becoming Bedridden"
to "Prevention of Long-term Care"
KAGAMI Katsuhiro

In the revision of the Long-Term Care Insurance Act in 2005, the shift to a "prevention-oriented system" was regarded as the most important issue. In this paper, I examine descriptions of prevention related to long-term care in documents from 1989 to 2008, mainly in white papers from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, to see how the descriptions changed before the policy shift in 2005. Around 1990, the word "prevention" was mainly used to mean "preventing people receiving a high level of care from becoming bedridden"; but later, around 2000, the meaning changed to "prevention of people receiving a relatively low level of care from needing long-term care." In the same period, more emphasis was put on promoting people's health to prevent them from needing long-term care. In conclusion, I argue that this change in the usage of the word "prevention" shifted the focus about long-term care within public opinion and the thinking among care managers to preventing the elderly from needing long-term care, which is subsidized by public funds.

Keywords: Long-Term Care Insurance Act Revision of 2005, prevention-oriented system, prevention of becoming bedridden, prevention of long-term care

A Study on the Economic Theory of Shimomura Osamu: Focusing on
Economic Growth and Financial Adjustment

The economic thought of Shimomura Osamu (1910-1989) has been regarded as a straightforward application of Keynesian theory to Japan. However, he did not merely follow Keynes but had many original insights, too. This paper analyzes his original ideas of the late 1950s, which were influenced by his intuitive understanding of the postwar Japanese economy. In this paper, I discuss two of Shimomura's ideas. First, he claimed that the government and the Bank of Japan should promote an economic growth policy by actively pushing a Managed Currency System, even if it broke stability in the value of money. Second, to avoid too much market intervention by the government, he suggested that economic policies initiated by the government, such as public works, should be executed not by issuing additional Bank of Japan notes but by fiscal investment through issuing government bonds. Contrary to the mainstream opinion of the immediate postwar era of the impossibility of achieving economic growth, Shimomura theorized that, if the government and the Bank of Japan adjusted effective demand appropriately, the development of the national economy could be achieved without inflation as long as economic growth was healthy.

Keywords: Shimomura Osamu, economic growth, financial adjustment, inflation, multiplier theory

Will Kymlicka's Concept of the Nation: A Critique of Kymlicka's
Multiculturalism from the Perspective of Not-yet-arrived Nations and
Physical Minorities

This paper investigates the concept of nation used by Will Kymlicka, who is one of the greatest political philosophers of multiculturalism. Kymlicka has introduced and developed a liberal theory of multiculturalism. His theory is structured by the concept of "culture as one of the primary goods" and "minority rights as response to nation-building." He insists on (1) "multiculturalism as distributive justice": everyone needs to and should be ensured of one's own culture, which enables one to think and make choices, and which one's own nation gives to them; and (2) "multiculturalism as corrective justice": the incorrectness of state nation-building operated by dominant nations should be minimized by ensuring the competing rights of minorities. Kymlicka's liberal multiculturalism is characterized by the importance of nations. His concept of nation, however, has serious limitations: "nation" is restricted by its definition as (1) well-institutionalized, (2) homogeneous with fixed boundaries and (3) an entirely inclusive community whose culture every member easily acquires and enjoys the benefit of. These limitations hinder him from (1) deliberating on the justice of the boundaries and contents of nation-building and (2) investigating not-yet-arrived nations and physical minorities, such as the Deaf or Gay. We need to go beyond Kymlicka's theoretical limitations.

Keywords: Will Kymlicka, multiculturalism, nation, nation-building, family

Establishment of the Intractable Disease Association of Shiga

Although much research has been done on the activities of individual patients' associations, little research has been conducted on prefecture-wide organizations that consist of different patients' associations. The purpose of this article is to investigate the first stage of the establishment of the Intractable Disease Association of Shiga (Shiga-Nanbyoren), a prefectural organization of patients' associations that each focuses on a separate intractable disease. The author examined the journals and meeting records of Shiga-Nanbyoren and interviewed group members in order to clarify (1) the background and purpose of the group's establishment and (2) the difficulties the founding members faced. Shiga-Nanbyoren was established in 1984 by 67 people with 26 diseases. Initially, Shiga-Nanbyoren's activities were carried out solely by the volunteer efforts of some of the patients. Today, the organization continues to have official monthly meetings, although some members cannot attend them because of impaired physical conditions. The members have always helped each other. Through the members' close cooperation and resolute intention to improve the circumstances of the patients' lives, the association has continued its activities in spite of many difficulties. The major problems at present include the shortage of active leading members and insufficient funds.

Keywords: Intractable Disease Association of Shiga, patients' rights movement, nanbyo, intractable disease, funds

Why Lend Money Instead of Giving Benefits?: An Examination of
Muhammad Yunus's Justification of Lending and His View of Market

In this paper, I examine the basis and appropriateness of governments preferring lending instead of giving benefits for transferring resources to impoverished people and low-income earners. I aim to clarify the possibilities and limitations of lending by analyzing Muhammad Yunus's concept of microcredit. First, I analyze the merits of microcredit and the demerits of benefits according to Yunus's argument. Then, I examine his view of market society, the background of his justifications for microcredit. Yunus believes the merits of lending are that it not only saves resources compared to benefits but also promotes various activities of impoverished people and low-income earners. On the other hand, the demerits of benefits are that they often do not reach the deprived people they target, and that even if deprived people can receive the benefits, they corrupt their incentive for various activities. Thus, Yunus recommends self-employment through microcredit, because he believes there is a market that allows almost all people to be self-employed. However, despite Yunus's justification for microcredit and his view of market society, his microcredit policy has limitations in the real world, because the market does not value impoverished people's economic activities, at least in Bangladesh, where Grameen Bank originated and is active.

Keywords: benefit, lending, self-employment, view of market society, Muhammad Yunus

Narratives on the Deir Yassin Incident in the Initial Stage of Israeli State Building: Denouncements of and Justifications for the Killing
KINJO Miyuki

In 1948, the Zionist military organization Irgun conducted a massacre in the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin. Based on Israeli New Historians' work and primary sources, this paper examines the conflicting evaluations of the event by the mainstream military organization, Haganah, and the right-wing dissidents group, Irgun, in order to focus on the political struggle within the Zionist movement. The first chapter describes the nature of the military operation directed by the Zionist leadership and Deir Yassin's strategic significance in that operation. The second chapter discusses Haganah's evaluation of the event. Haganah, while officially criticizing Irgun's brutal acts, appreciated that it contributed to the Zionists' common goal of transferring the Palestinian population from territory designated for the Jewish State. The third chapter examines Irgun's justifications of its acts. The group emphasized that it committed the killing because of harsh counterattacks by the villagers and that the event contributed to the War of Independence in the end. This paper concludes that while Haganah and Irgun officially presented conflicting evaluations of the event - Haganah denouncing Irgun's killings and Irgun publicizing the acts as justifiable and heroic - the two organizations both appreciated the event's effectiveness for the Zionists' cause.

Keywords: Israel, War of Independence, Deir Yassin, Haganah, Irgun

Satisfaction with Different Types of Amusements and a Factor Analysis of Images of Video Games and Feelings Caused by Video Games
KOMAGO Yasuhira

History and Politics of Taiwan Railways' Privatization Reforms:
From WW II to the Privatization Reforms of 1989
TSAI Cheng-Lun

This paper studies the privatization reforms of Taiwan Railways, focusing on the historical background and surrounding politics. Most preceding research has been conducted from the viewpoint of economics and management. However, the financial problems of Taiwan Railways have not been caused only by inefficient management but have been deeply influenced by the political situation which surrounds it. This paper first examines the traffic and industrial policies of the postwar Taiwan government to determine their relationship with the economic decline of Taiwan Railways. Then, it looks at Taiwan Railways' expenses to determine which were related to government policies. Postwar Taiwan Railways was a government enterprise used for economic development and social stability. However, it lost its monopolistic position through changes in traffic and industrial policies from the 1960s. After 1989, as a part of the Kuomintang government's political reforms, it became the target of so-called privatization reforms. However, because of labor unions' opposition and the Minchintang government's interest seeking, the government has not privatized Taiwan Railways, so far. Thus, we can see that Taiwan Railways has been tossed about by politics throughout its history. Consequently, it is important to clarify the political characteristics of policies affecting Taiwan Railways.

Keywords: Taiwan Railways, privatization reforms, history, politics, postwar

Children's Welfare in Surrogacy: Suitability of a Surrogacy Client as a

When approving surrogacy, the suitability of a surrogacy client as a parent should be examined before using reproductive technology, in order to protect the child's welfare. This paper studies the possibility of using existing foster-parent systems as a model for investigating surrogacy suitability. First, I examine "Issues Related to Assisted Reproductive Technologies Centered on Surrogate Pregnancy," a report by the Science Council of Japan, in order to analyze the relationship between surrogacy and child welfare. Second, I clarify the conditions necessary for becoming a parent by investigating (1) discussions on parenthood in the fields of maternal and child health, (2) the standards of suitability used for choosing the legal guardian of a child in divorce court and (3) the foster-parent system as a social childcare system. The study's results are as follows. The standards of qualification and disqualification used in selecting a foster-parent can be used in determining the suitability of a surrogacy client for becoming a parent. The client should take a foster-parent training course and should get certified. The client also should learn and understand about protecting the child's rights. Additionally, the client should undergo practical training in childcare.

Keywords: surrogacy, welfare of children, suitability as a parent, foster-parent system

A Study on Comprehensive Support for Persons with Severe
Disabilities: Comparing the Individual Support System and the
Comprehensive Support System
SATO Hiroko

The Services and Supports for Persons with Disabilities Act added "comprehensive support for persons with severe disabilities" as a care benefit for the severely disabled. However, few local governments use the service. This essay first examines why the service is rarely used and why it was initially proposed. Then, it considers what services are actually necessary for people with severe disabilities. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's primary intent in introducing comprehensive support was to limit the cost of providing care to those requiring many care hours; it enables governments to pay organizations in package payments rather than in individual payments for each user. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, who require artificial respirators and are recipients of comprehensive support, expected its introduction would allow for a truly comprehensive support service with greater coordinating capacity and flexibility. However, through investigating local governments and analyzing related organizations' activities, I find that comprehensive support offers advantages to neither the users nor the organizations: the service lacks flexibility because it is a collection of individual services; and it lacks a coordinating function because the budget is limited. In reassessing comprehensive support, we need to consider support with consultation based on the users' perspective.

Keywords: Comprehensive Support for Persons with Severe Disabilities, Services and Support for Persons with Disabilities Act, comprehensive, individual

An Ainu Place Name Dictionary as Thick Translation

A Study on the Creation of the Home Helper System as a New Home
Care Welfare Labor and Workforce Supply Policy

Previous studies have not clarified the reasons for establishing the home-helper system in Japan or the workforce problems of the system. These issues are important for showing that home helper work was originally developed to assist the lives of the elderly poor. This paper examines the social background to this policy and examines how widows were selected as the leading workforce of the system. The research is based on various documents related to the establishment of the home helper system, including minutes of the Diet, newspaper reports, administration documents and scientific documents. Elderly poverty was a significant social problem in those days. The home helpers' work in assisting poor elderly people's lives was said to be a "backbreaking visit and job." It was necessary to find a new workforce for the work, and war-widows were assumed to be the workforce. A workforce supply system was also introduced, but the work conditions were set at a very low level. The foundation of the home helper system formed a new framework regarding labor for welfare care. This framework aimed to socially support the elderly who were reduced to poverty. Further investigation on the low level of the work conditions is necessary.

Keywords: home helper system, welfare care labor, elderly poor issues, widows, workforce supply system

Introductory Viewpoint on Reasonable Accommodation in Disability
Employment: Consideration of the Current State of the Americans with
Disabilities Act

The Japanese government is making the necessary adjustments toward ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, but it provides neither a definition of reasonable accommodation nor an introductory viewpoint to it, so it is necessary to present them. The reference for considering the issue is the Americans with Disabilities Act, which first introduced the definition of reasonable accommodation. This research is based on literature, documents and judicial precedents related to the ADA. By considering the progress and current state of the ADA, the article clarifies the introductory viewpoint of reasonable accommodation for Japan. Reasonable accommodation should be placed as an obligation in laws related to disabilities; it should be determined that reasonable accommodation and the elimination of discrimination are two sides of the same coin. Thus, laws related to disabilities must be regulated in line with the definition of reasonable accommodation.

Keywords: reasonable accommodation, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, work and employment, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), elimination of discrimination

Transformation and Formation of Theory and Research on
Occupational Therapy for Elderly with Dementia: Analysis of
Rehabilitation Magazines of the 1980s and 1990s

This study clarifies the transformation and formation of theory and research on occupational therapy for elderly with dementia by analyzing descriptions of "occupational therapy for dementia" extracted from issues of three magazines, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Occupational Therapy and Occupational Therapy Journal, all published in the 1980s and 1990s. In this period, elderly with dementia were targeted for rehabilitation and the ways of intervention were specified. The research results are as follows. (1) The theory and research on elderly with dementia were formulated and accumulated in occupational therapy studies from 1985. (2) Nineteen eighty-nine was an important turning point in the transformation and formation of the theory and research of occupational therapy studies. (3) In the 1990s, various new theories were included in occupational therapy studies based on the turning point of 1989.

Keywords: occupational therapy for elderly with dementia, transformation and formation of theory and research

Historical Background and Problems of the Psychiatric Service
Exception: Its Establishment and Discussion for Revision
NAKA Asayo

A Case Study of Buruli Ulcer: Present Socioeconomic Conditions of
Endemic Areas and Limitations of the World Health Organization and

Buruli ulcer, a tropical infectious disease that destroys skin and soft tissue, has recently received more attention in the global medical community. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the limitations of global measures initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) against buruli ulcer, focusing on the WHO's comprehensive measures against the disease. Fieldwork conducted by the author in Ghana, Benin and Togo revealed various socioeconomic problems, for example, the brain drain of skilled medical staff from endemic regions, which prevents establishing effective national policies against buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, although the WHO fully recognizes that many socioeconomic issues need to be dealt with to effectively cure the disease, its support measures and guidelines focus almost exclusively on medical care. This paper argues for the necessity of more comprehensive approaches to the disease. Therefore, it suggests that, in addition to the efforts of international medical support groups and national programs, non-medical non-governmental organizations, such as Save the Children of Buruli Ulcer (Project SCOBU), a Japanese NGO, can offer complementary projects for improving the socioeconomic factors related to buruli ulcer.

Keywords: buruli ulcer, World Health Organization (WHO), international aid, Save the Children of Buruli Ulcer (Project SCOBU), neglected tropical diseases

Folk Performing Arts within Cultural Movements of Japan in the 1950s:
A Study on Hara Taro and Warabi-za

This paper questions why Warabi-za could find values and practices different from typical folk performing art studies. Warabi-za is a theatrical company with an influential troupe that performs folk songs and dances. The influence of Warabi-za on the modern history of folk performing arts cannot be overlooked. To this end, I study culture movements of Japan in the 1950s, Warabi-za's founder Hara Taro and the activities of Warabi-za and its predecessors, Umi-Tsubame and Poplar-za. Hara found value in local folk songs and dances through communicating with workers at their gathering places. Influenced by the Japanese Communist Party's awareness of ethnicity, Warabi-za collected folk performing arts to create new ethnic arts. Umi-Tsubame had become active among workers from 1951. Later they moved to farm villages to escape communist purges in Tokyo, but the villagers wanted Western culture, and the indifference of the villagers shook Warabi-za's policy. Later, however, Hara rebuilt Warabi-za through his solid leadership and deeply considered philosophy. Warabiza emerged from the culture movements of the 1950s, but it was unique in connecting with and performing for workers at their gathering places in the modern period.

Keywords: folk performing arts, Cultural Maneuver Party, Japanese Communist Party, ethnic arts, Umi- Tsubame

Communication Deficiencies and Misunderstandings in Home Care
Services for Patients with Severe Progressive Diseases Who Live Alone:
A Case Study of an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Patient

A Model of the Modern Nation State: A Methodological Approach
NIU Geping

This paper is part of a larger research project on China's political modernization. Its purpose is to construct a model of the modern nation state, which can later be used to examine the case of China. Based on the works of Max Weber, Carl Schmitt, Karl Polanyi, Ernest Gellner and Benedict Anderson, among others, this paper first lists some basic characteristics of the modern nation state: the state's monopoly of legitimate violence; the rationality and representativeness of state power; the state's role in maintaining a homogeneous national culture and in promoting economic progress; the territoriality of state sovereignty; the international community of modern nation states and the world system dominated by them; as well as the prevalence of the concept of nation and nationalism in modern states. In the second part, the paper proposes a three-concentric-circle model of the system of modern nation states, in which the modern nation state constitutes the first circle, the international system the second, larger circle, and the world system the largest circle. Finally, the paper attempts to relate the economic and cultural aspects of the modern state to its strictly political structure.

Keywords: modern nation state, international system, world system, national economy, national culture

Government-led Awareness-raising Activities for Mental Health and Welfare

Independent Living for Care-needing Patients with Worsening
Symptoms of Disease: From a Case of Establishing a Care System for
an ALS Patient Living Alone

This paper presents a case study of building a care system to support the independent living of S, an ALS patient who lived alone. Because of the lack of care workers, which is a social issue, students joined as care assistants for him. S had difficulties managing care assistants by himself, as S had become sick in his middle age and many of his bodily functions had been gradually worsening. He did not know how to live independently with his severe disabilities. Additional assistance was required to update his care system according to the progression of his disease. S believed that only he could manage the care assistants appropriately, but it was difficult for him to communicate with the care assistants, because S could not speak. Partly because of the lack of communication, the care assistants could not take proper care of S, and their relationships with him degraded. Therefore, it became necessary for a coordinator to enter between S and his care assistants to manage their support in a suitable way for S. It is difficult to form a support system for single-living ALS patients, because the system is inadequate for supporting people with disabilities without depending on familial help.

Keywords: Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), living alone, care assistant, independent living

A Strategy of National Integration by a Bureaucrat of the Interior
Ministry in the 1910s: Focusing on Tazawa Yoshiharu's Theories of
Young Men
BANSHO Kenichi

In this paper, I analyze the development of the policy regarding seinen (young men) in the social reform movement in the 1910s after the Russo-Japanese War by examining documents of Tazawa Yoshiharu, who was an Interior Ministery bureaucrat and the main promoter of the policy. I find, in his technical continuation school theory, that civic education was required in farm villages before it became widespread in cities. I examine, in his theory on training leaders among young males, the process of making the male children of local notables identify themselves with the ideal model of seinen through training camps. Tazawa advanced social reform in each community using all available organizations such as elementary schools, young men's associations, continuation schools, veteran's associations and women's associations. Among them, he especially put emphasis on organizing young men's associations. Tazawa aimed to nationalize young men in farm villages at three levels: by promoting nousontekijinbutu (farm village characters) as models for common farming boys in technical continuation schools; by organizing young men's associations in farm villages; and by cultivating tyuukenseinen (mainstay characters) as the leaders of young men's associations.

Keywords: Tazawa Yoshiharu, young men's association, culture, technical continuation school, civics

The Concept of "Elderly with an Income Level of Active Workers" in the
Medical Care System for the Elderly: A Historical Study on Changes in
the State's Contribution Caused by the Medical Reform of 2006
MAKI Masako

Tranquilizers in Vogue: Grounds and Progress of the Control of
Over-the-counter Psychotropic Drugs

Tranquilizer drugs were widely marketed in Japan from the 1950s to 1970s. This paper examines articles and advertisements in newspapers and magazines of that time as well as government documents to clarify the advice given by doctors, pharmacists and pharmacies about when to take tranquilizers, what problems ensued and how the government acted. In the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, tranquilizer advertisements appeared widely in newspapers and magazines. Tranquilizers were obtained easily at drug stores and were used to ease daily tension and increase job efficiency. By 1959, however, addiction problems caused hospitals to stop using the tranquilizer Meprobamate, and, in 1961, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law was revised to restrict Meprobamate sales to those with prescriptions. I call this the "first sales control." Meprobamate sales, however, actually continued over-the-counter until 1971. That year, a doctor at Kyoto University Hospital released a drug addiction report and called for a ban on Meprobamate sales. The same year, the Ministry of Welfare required a prescription for all tranquilizers, bringing over-the-counter tranquilizer sales to an end. I call this the "second sales control." In this way, the Welfare Ministry put tranquilizers under the supervision of doctors.

Keywords: tranquilizer, advertisement, over-the-counter drug, pharmaceutical and medical administration, discourse analysis

Land Ownership as the Foundation of the "Essence of the Hanamachi" in Gion

Gionmachi Minamigawa's landscape is preserved by the Gionmachi Minamigawa Council, which consists of residents and ochaya (teahouse) managers; the council claims that the "essence of the hanamachi (teahouse entertainment area)" is the landscape. Based on newspaper reports, a nonprofit organization's report and government records, this report analyzes how the essence of the hanamachi originated in land purchases and district development by the Working Women's Society of Shimogyo Ward. The Gionmachi Minamigawa Council declares that it is the consensus of the district residents to preserve the place for ochaya to operate their businesses. The two leading actors in owning and developing the district have been the ochaya managers and the local community of the machigumi. Even today, the district is owned as common property by the Yasaka Nyokoba School, an educational corporation which succeeded the Working Women's Society. However, the unity of the community has tottered, and different residents now find other meanings in the landscape of the district; nevertheless, the members of the hanamachi are trying to maintain their unity by emphasizing the identity of Gion as a hanamachi.

Keywords: community, land ownership, consensus, essence of the hanamachi, Gion

A Study on the View of Japanese Mental Health Experts about De-hospitalization

The de-hospitalization of psychiatric patients in America is widely known by Japanese hospital psychiatrists and staff members of community mental health centers. This paper looks into how Japanese experts have evaluated the American case to consider problems of mental health welfare policy in Japan today. For this study, I examined Japanese research papers and newspaper articles as well as various reports to U.S. presidents about de-hospitalization from the 1960s to the 2000s. However, I found no description about what people with mental disabilities themselves wanted. I only found specialists justifying their expertise and demanding to strengthen and expand their strict professional treatment programs. Japanese mental health specialists conveniently interpreted the case of American de-hospitalization to suit their requirements, and today's policy of shifting patients into the community is an extension of this. I conclude that it is important to ask people with mental disabilities about their needs first, because their needs differ from time to time, person to person, rather than depending on specialists' decisions about appropriate care or about if the support for people with mental abilities to live in the community is sufficient, insufficient or too much.

Keywords: de-hospitalization, community care, people with mental disabilities, Special Massage to the Congress on Mental Illness and Mental Retardation

Asylum Seekers Who Cannot Become Refugees: Effects of the Safe
Third Country Agreement between the U.S. and Canada
MOTOOKA Hirokazu

From the 1980s, developed countries started to send asylum seekers to a "safe third country" or "safe origin country" in order to avoid violating the principle of non-refoulement, which protects refugees from being returned to places where their lives or freedoms could be threatened. Nevertheless, returned asylum seekers have the possibility of being pushed back to a country that may persecute them without applying the status of refugee. Based on documents of the Canadian government and the Canadian Council for Refugees, this article considers such asylum seekers by focusing on the Safe Third Country Agreement (STCA) between the U.S. and Canada. By the STCA, the U.S.-Canada border is in principle closed to asylum seekers. In 2005, the first year after the execution of the STCA, the number of refugees who sought asylum at the U.S.-Canada border was reduced in half. The legal standing of an asylum seeker who filed suit against the STCA in the U.S. in 2005 was denied in 2009. Since asylum seekers cannot appear before the law, they have no legitimate way to improve their conditions. They exist only as outlaws with no legal standing, and they appear in the political sphere only by illegal actions.

Keywords: Safe Third Country, Canada, asylum seekers, legal standing

Dam Debate: Yosemite National Park, Landscape Aesthetics and the
Water Supply of San Francisco

At the turn of the 20th century, when the municipalities around San Francisco Bay decided to discontinue the supplying of water by private enterprise, city officials and engineers chose two water sources in Yosemite National Park for the municipal water supply. This paper historically analyzes the conflicts over the resulting project to develop dams and reservoirs in the national park. The research results are as follows. (1) The first environmental protection campaigners in the United States were members of nature-lover groups. (2) The people who wanted to stop the dam development in Yosemite National Park opposed it on the grounds that it would spoil a great, natural spectacle, but they did not object to the national park as a dam site. (3) In the end, Walter L. Fisher, the Secretary of the Interior, who had jurisdiction over the national park, refused to let the project proceed by only his authority. In response, the U.S. Congress approved special legislation authorizing the construction of the dams. As a result, it became difficult for succeeding Secretaries of Interior to authorize the construction of a dam in a national park.

Keywords: municipal water supply, Yosemite National Park, environmental protection campaign, spoliation of a natural spectacle, dam development

Improving Living Conditions of People with Severe Physical Disabilities:
Supporting Residential Moves of Single ALS Patients

The possibility of living at home for ALS patients largely depends on the presence or absence of adequate support by family members. Single ALS patients who cannot receive family support seldom choose even to wear a ventilator due to the lack of social resources to support community life. This study aims to clarify the details of support needed for severely disabled people who require medical care to live in community without the support of a family, and it aims to state the information to promote its institutionalization. The paper discusses the details of support needed to improve the living conditions of people with severe disabilities as shown through activities supporting the residential moves of single ALS patients who had no family support. Some patients had to leave their familiar communities because of a lack of sufficient resources for living in their residential areas, as the amount of required care increased following the progression of symptoms. Housing assistance policy for singles with severe disabilities is poor and very few living options are available.

Keywords: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), living alone, living condition, residential move

The Art Section of the Hankyu Department Store and the Development
of New Art Fans

This paper studies the activity of Hankyu-Bijutsu-bu, the Art Section of the Hankyu Department Store, in the early Showa period by introducing a bibliography of the art magazine, Hankyu-Bijutsu, that Hankyu Bijutsu-bu published and focusing on Kobayashi Ichizo, the founder of Hankyu Department Store, and Yamanouchi Kinzaburo, who oversaw the policy and contents of Hankyu-Bijutsu. Kobayashi applied his business policy of providing quality products at reasonable prices to art to make it possible for his customers to obtain art works easily. Kobayshi's art activities were influenced by the spirit of the tea ceremony, for which he had a great appreciation. Yamanouchi, who was an editor and was previously an artist and a gallery owner, took advantage of his wide network within the art field. The synergy of the two men decided the direction of the Hankyu Art Section and made it possible for it to provide first-class art works for common Japanese. The effect of their activities was the creation of new art fans, who included office workers and others.

Keywords: Hankyu Department Store, Art Section, Hankyu-Bijutsu, Yamanouchi Kinzaburo, Kobayashi Ichizo

Zainichi Koreans' Identity and Diversity Education
YANG Yangil

Some Zainichi Korean children going to Japanese public schools, especially in Osaka, attend ethnic culture classes. What then is the meaning of ethnic culture classes for Koreans in Japan? I interviewed grown-up alumni of ethnic culture classes. From their narratives, I found that ethnic culture classes enabled students to accept their ethnicity positively by learning culture, language and games as well as by making friends with other Zainichi Koreans. In addition to that, their narratives show that they want to live with self-esteem and that the key concept for doing so is ethnicity. Zainichi Koreans should not be forced to exclusively choose either Korean or Japanese identities, to either assimilate to Japanese society or keep their Korean identity. Ethnic culture classes need to change their policies from seeking the "ideal ethnic image" to providing an education which supports diverse ways of living. In fact, the interviewees' narratives reveal the importance of diversity education not only for Zainichi Koreans but for all children in Japanese schools.

Keywords: Zainichi Korean, ethnic culture class, ethnicity, diversity education, narrative

A Study on Narrative and the Life of People with Mental Disorders:
What Does the Word "Support" Mean?

Most studies in welfare sociology have concentrated on how to support those with mental disorders, mainly focusing on the aspects of the disabilities and paying little attention to the realities of the people's lives. Life history studies are commonly used to approach the realities of people's lives; however, most previous researchers have made such studies with the support theory in mind and have failed to describe their research participants' entire lives, since it is difficult to understand the lives of those people. This paper aims to understand the realities of the lives of people with mental disorders based on the original role and meaning of life history studies, and it indicates how much people with mental disorders think they are being supported. Based on a life history study, I reveal that there is a clear difference between the general concept of support and the concept of support which is told by people with mental disorders. The life history interviewee's comment, "I am not supported," shows the need to redefine the meaning of support.

Keywords: mental disorder, narrative, life history, realities of lives, support

Capabilities for Pregnant Women's Health on Farms and Plantations in Sri Lanka
ISOBE Atsuko

Human security seeks to enlarge human capabilities while focusing on human existence and life, and it seeks to protect people from disadvantages caused by various difficulties. It is said that Sri Lanka has been successful in the field of maternal and children's health. However, the health of mothers and children in Sri Lanka differs widely among cities, farms and plantations. In February 2009, I conducted research at farms and plantations in Sri Lanka on the capability of pregnant women there. The research showed that there were many cases of abnormal childbirth on farms and that many pregnant women on plantations were thin and anemic. Possible causes of these problems are women's lack of motivation and insufficient control of housekeeping, as well as low wages and poor treatment of workers on plantations. These factors are connected to prenatal undergrowth and the birth of premature babies. Therefore, we need to consider women's capabilities, their roles in the home, the social and economic conditions at their workplaces and the cultural conditions in their communities. Moreover, the capability of women on plantations should be enhanced through the spread of basic education and improvements in political, economic and social conditions.

Keywords: pregnant women's health, farm and plantation, capabilities

Recipients' Expectations and Realities Regarding Islet Transplantation: An Interview Survey of Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Islet transplantation is a radical treatment method for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This research, based on a semi-structured interview survey, seeks to clarify recipients' experiences before and after transplantation. Recipients considered themselves lucky for having been selected for a transplantation. Although they worried about the possible development of complications or worsening symptoms, they decided to undergo the procedure as a chance to improve their condition. The recipients felt indebted to physicians for making every possible effort to provide effective medical services, so the recipients sought to cooperate with the physicians, which led to the formation of a joint physician-recipient team with the same goal. The recipients were psychologically burdened by the therapy, as it requires constant attention to the blood glucose level, but it allowed them to cease insulin injections, and they considered that it gave them the chance to repay the physician's kindness. However, in reality, they struggled with the physical and mental limitations caused by their strict dietary and exercise therapies, and they ended up resuming insulin injections. In the end, selfmanaging treatment is necessary for the rest of their lives whether they choose to have islet transplantation or not.

Keywords: islet transplantation, type 1 diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus, recipient, psychological state

The Process of Forming Scenery Management Politics: The Historic
Position of Landscape Districts in Kyoto in the 1920s and 1930s

This paper examines the historical significance of the landscape district system of Kyoto and how it was actually carried out in the 1920s and 1930s. Based on municipal proceedings, newspapers and magazines, the paper discusses the development of arguments about designing the landscape districts, and it analyzes the reactions of people, such as prefecture councilors, scholars, temple priests and residents, focusing on nonmainstream opinions that opposed or criticized the creation of landscape districts. The study found the following results. The district administration came up with flexible policies to fill the gap between the original ideal of the national government and the local reality in Kyoto. The national government aimed to preserve the landscape, while the Kyoto government aimed to conserve areas as far as land development allowed. In Kyoto, some people believed that new regulations were urgently needed to preserve forests, beautiful scenery and historical sites, while others wanted development. While the landscape preservation policies were designed to preserve beautiful scenery, historical sites, forestlands, Imperial lands, to develop tourism and to improve public sanitation, the people affected by the policies tried to manage their daily lives, struggling and compromising in a variety of contexts.

Keywords: 1920s and 1930s, Kyoto, landscape district, city planning, scenery management

Modernization of Japanese Civil Engineering Construction Industry
and Korean Laborers
OMURA Yoichi

Generally, it is thought in historical studies that the mobilization of Korean laborers began after colonization as a result of land and labor deprivation caused by the construction of the colonial Kyonbu railroad. The purpose of this paper is to consider the economic and social impact of the construction of the Kyonbu railroad on rural society in the southern Korean Peninsula. The study is based on reports in Kougakkaisi (Journals of Engineering Societies) by Japanese engineers who participated in the construction of the railroad. The research found (1) that the employment agreements of Korean laborers were equivalent to those of Japanese paid laborers and (2) that the Korean paid laborers had been pushed out from the farming sector by poverty and the closing of farms before colonization. That is to say, the construction of the Kyonbu railroad produced surplus laborers in Korea from 1907 to 1910. The colonial railroad construction influenced not only the Korean labor structure but also the hierarchization of Japanese construction workers and the reformation of labor structures in Japan.

Keywords: Kyonbu railroad, Korean laborers, social impact, paid laborers, hierarchization

Research on the Management of Centers for Independent Living:
Tactics for Keeping the Balance Between the Independent Living
Movement and the Business of Centers

Although the Independent Living Movement advocates self-realization and self-decision making by people with disabilities, there is a tendency for people with disabilities to be left behind in the management of a Center for Independent Living (CIL), even though its purpose is for people with disabilities to support people with disabilities. A center's home nursing dispatch business consumes most of its resources, so its role as a movement body for protecting rights cannot be adequately upheld, and support given by people with disabilities, such as peer-counseling or Independent Living Programs, tends to become perfunctory. Such a situation has been caused by the limited budget for people with disabilities. Healthy workers operate most of the home nursing business because of the system’s complications and the large amount of paperwork. Consequently, the healthy workers end up running the center, and the idea of enpowering people with disabilities is left behind. Nevertheless, to secure income by efficiently running its business, a CIL must rely on healthy workers. Therefore, the challenge of a CIL is to balance the goals of the movement and the realities of its business. In this paper, I study tactics for a CIL to strike a balance between the movement and its business.

Keywords: Center for Independent Living (CIL), people with disabilities’ self-realization and self-decisions, activities to protect rights, home nursing dispatch business

Contemporary History of Occupational Therapy in Japan 2 (1976-1980)

This study researches the development process of the theory of occupational therapy from 1976 to 1980 as a contemporary history of occupational therapy in Japan. The research is based on the Journal of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy. The results are discussed according to four viewpoints: (1) the target field of occupational therapy, (2) cooperation with other occupational categories, (3) the problem in forming the theory of occupational therapy and (4) psychiatric occupational therapy.

Keywords: occupational therapy, contemporary history, Japan

The Growth of the Overseas Mission by Chinese Churches:
From the 19th Century to the 21st Century
MORI Kainei

Since Protestantism was introduced to China, many Chinese Christians have participated in evangelization to accomplish the Christian mission. They have preached not only to the Chinese, but also to other nations in areas around them. In addition, with the expansion of the Chinese diaspora in the 20th century, Chinese Christians have aimed at a worldwide mission. This paper outlines four phases in the history of the overseas mission of Chinese Christians: (1) when Chinese churches were not established as independent organizations, from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century; (2) when the first Chinese missionary organization was established before World War II; (3) when Chinese missionaries spread outside of China in the three decades after WW II; (4) when the Chinese Movement on World Evangelization appeared as a leading thought after 1976.

Keywords: Protestantism, Chinese, mission, evangelicalism, diaspora

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