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Dolowitz, David P., 1998, Learning From America: Policy Transfer and the Development of the British Workfare State, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.


Dolowitz, David P., 199806, Learning From America: Policy Transfer and the Development of the British Workfare State, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. 12+212p ISBN: 1898723737 [amazon]


■Contents

Foreword by Hrmon Zeigler
Acknowledgements
List of Abbreviations

Introduction: The British Workfare State through the Eyes of Policy Transfer
Waht is Policy Transfer?
Restating the British Workfare State

1 Policy Transfer: A Framework for Analysis

Why and When Do Actors Engage in Policy Transfer?
 Voluntrary Transfer
 The Middle Ground
 Coercive Transfer
Who Transfers Policy?
 Elected Officials
 Bureaucrats/Administrators/Professionals
 Enterpreneurs
 Political parties
 Pressure Groups
 Think Tanks
 International Organizations
 Networks
What Is Transferred?
 Policies
 Institutions
 Ideologies/Justifications
 Attitudes
 Negative Lessons/What is Not Transferred
From Where Are Lessons Drawn?
 Regional, State and Local Units of Government
 Cross-National
 International
 The Past
Degrees of Transfer
 Copying
 Emulation
 Mixtures
 Inspiration
Restrictions on, And Facilitators of, Policy Transfer
 Policy Complexity
 Past Policy/International with Existing Policy
 Institutional/Structural Constraints
 Feasibility Constraints
 Language
Sources of Information
 Media
 Reports/Physical Meetings
How Can We Demonstrate Policy Transfer
 Government Statements
Conclusion

2 America Leads the Way: The 1988 Family Support Act

State Programmes
The 1988 Family Support Act and Its Key Programmes
 Job Search
 Community Work Experience
 Work Supplementation
 Educational Programmes
The 1988 Family Support Act and Its Key Services
 Support Services
 Employability Plans/Case Management
 Targeting Long-Term Recipients
The 1988 Family Support Act and Its Precursor Themes
 Mutual-Obligation
 Self Respect and Societal Integration
 Decreased Cost
 Reduce 'Dependency'
 Flexibility
Guarateed Protections
 Prohibition Against Ending Up Worse Off
 Prohibition on Extended Job Search
Conclusion

3 Why Thatcher Turned to Policy Transfer

Why Look?
 Unemployment
 Elections
 Feeling of Being Left Behind
 dissatisfaction with the Existing System
Why Look to The USA?
 1. Solution
 2. Pressure Groups/Think Tanks
 3. Structural Compability
 4. Compability of Goals
 5. Local Training: Local Responsibility
 6. Ideological Similarities
 7. The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing Approach
Knowledge of Other Systems
 Newspapers and Magazines
 Television
 Workfare Reports
 Conferences
 Visits
 Statements and Questions
Conclusion

4 We Had the Ideas All Along

Attitudes and Ideas
 Blame the Victim
 Dependence
 Mutual Obligations
 Contract
 Self-Respect and Socieal Integration
 Business Ethos
Programme Goals
 Target Resources
 Control of the Public Sector Borrowing Requirement
 Reduce the Benefit Count
 Willingness to Perform
Conclusion

5 The British Welfare-to-Work System Begins to Emerge

Initial Programme Transfer
 Community Programme
 Job Clubs
 The Restart Process
 Restart Comes of Age as the Beveridge Police Officer
 Things Can Only Get Better: If America Says So
 The Restar Course
 Signing-On Questionnaires
 The First Signs of Workfare: The Dual Extension of the Benefit Disqualification Period
Why The Government Needed to Do More: The Extent of the Initial Welfare-to-Work Programmes
 General Statistics
 The Effects of Welfare-to-Work are Revealed!
 Yorkshire and Humverside: The True Effects!
 The Proof is in the Pudding
Conclusion

6 The System Solidifies

Employment Act 1988
 Clause 27: British Workfare Advances within Welfare-to-Work Legislation
 Clause 26: Who Work? Who Trains?
The British Employment Training Scheme
 The Programme
 Target Groups
 American Made: Support Services
 Re-Circulation of Individuals
Training and Enterprise Councils and Local Enterprise Companies
 Knowledge of PICs
 What Was Transferred?
The Employment Service
 The Good Old Days
 Overseas Inspiration
Employability Plans
Conclusion: Britains Has A Well Developed Welfare-to-Work System With A Unique Workfare Programe Built In!

7 Workfare for the 'Work Shy'

The Firs Workfare Programme Arrives: The Young
 Social Security Act 1988
 The Time Is Right For One Last Swedish Inspiration
The Crystallization of The UK Workfare System: The Over 18 Year-Olds
 Social Security Act 1989
 Section 10
 Section 11: Work Here, Work There, Work Anywhere
 Section 12: The British Workfare Policy Comes of Age
 Concessions Transferred from the Past
Workfare Is Finally In Britain

8 Conclusion: Why Apply Policy Transfer to the Study of Welfare State Development?

The Utility Of The Policy Transfer Framework: Using Policy Transfer As An Independent And Dependent Variable
 Policy Transfer as an Independent Variable: Shaping Policy Outcomes
 Policy Transfer as an Independent Variable: The Context Affecting Policy Transfer
Policy Transfer And The Literature On The Policy-Making Process
 Agenda Setting
 Issue Filtration/Issue Definition
 Option Analysis
 Policy Evaluation

Notes
Bibliography
Index



■メモ

・[裏表紙]
1980年代と1990年代のイギリスの保守政権が行ったワークフェア政策は、大きな政治的重要性をもつが、これは1980年代のレーガン政権によって主導されたアメリカのウェルフェア・トゥー・ワーク制度に起源を発する。

☆ アメリカ → サッチャー政権
: イギリスのウェルフェア・トゥー・ワークやワークフェア制度

第2章 アメリカが率先する:1988年家族支援法

・アメリカの個々の州のウェルフェア・トゥ・ワーク制度や連邦のウェルフェア・トゥ・ワーク制度の制定がモデルとなって、サッチャー政権によって1980年代と1990年代初期にイギリスでウェルフェア・トゥ・ワーク制度が展開された。(p36)

☆州のウェルフェア・トゥー・ワークのプログラムの中で見られる重要な構成要素を理解し、これらがどのようにFSAの進展に影響を及ぼしたかを把握する必要がある。・・・。サッチャー政権で採択された法の中の主要なテーマや構造要素は、1988年FSAに包括される前に、実施されていたか、地方、州、国レベルでしっかりと設立されていた。

1.国のプログラム

2.1988年家族支援法とそのキー・プログラム

3.1988年家族支援法とそのキー・サービス
 3-2.雇用能力プラン/ケースマネージメント
★FASは、雇用能力プランとケースマネージメントをJOBSの中に包含した。
・法の規定のいくつかは、公式会議や連邦議会の公聴会の間に連邦議会や政権を中継して、州や地方のウェルフェア・トゥー・ワークプログラムから生じた。
例)GAINプログラム

4.1988年家族支援法とその先駆的主題
 4−1.相互的-義務
・「1988年FSAが進展する間に、相互義務は、AFDC受給者は労働市場かウェルフェア・トゥー・ワークプログラムに参加する義務を自分たち自身と社会に対して持つとい信念のためのキャッチフレーズになった。同時に、国家はAFDC受給者に、給付金・訓練・教育機会・サポートサービスを提供する責任を持った。」(p50-1)
・既存の規定に対する批判は、Lawrence Meadから始まった。
cf Mead, 1983, "Expectations and Welfare Work: WIN in New York City," Policy Studies Review, 2(4), 1985a, "Expectations and Welfare Work WIN in New York State," Polity, 18(2), 1985b, "The Value of Workfare," The New York Times, 12 november, 1986, Beyond Entitlement: The Social Obligations of Citizenship, New York, London: The Free Press, 1987, "How To Make Sure Workfare Works," Wall Street Journal, 15 April

5.保証された保護

6.結論
 

第3章 なぜサッチャーは政策移転に取り掛かったか?

・マサチューセッツのET、カリフォルニアのGAINの運用の検証(p82-3)
→「この種の何かがイギリスで作用している」(Holland interview, 4 November 1996)
Cf GAINプログラム


製作:小林勇人(立命館大学大学院先端総合学術研究科)
UP:20060812 http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/gr/gsce/db1990/9806dd.htm
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