>HOME >DATABASE

Lodemel, Ivar and Heather Trickey eds., 2001, An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press.


Lodemel, Ivar and Heather Trickey eds., 2001, An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press. 21+357p $29.95(PB) ISBN-10: 1861341954 [amazon]


■Contents

Acknowledgements
Notes on contributors
Preface

1 A New Contract for Social Assistance
2 Between Subsidiarity and Social Assistance: the French Republican Route to Activation
3 Uneven Development: Local Authorities and Workfare in Germany
4 Workfare in the Netherlands: Young Unemployed People and the Jobseeker's Employment Act
5 National Objectives and Local Implementation of Workfare in Norway
6 When All Must Be Active: Workfare in Denmark
7 Steps to Compulsion within British Labour Market Policies
8 Making Work for Welfare in the United States
9 Comparing Workfare Programmes: Features and Implications
10 Discussion: Workfare in the Welfare State

Index



◆Lodemel, Ivar and Heather Trickey, 2001, "A New Contract for Social Assistance," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press, 1-39.

◆Enjolras, Bernard, Jean Louis Laville, Laurent Fraisse and Heather Trickey, 2001, "Between Subsidiarity and Social Assistance: the French Republican Route to Activation," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press,

◆Voges, Wolfgang, Herbert Jacobs and Heather Trickey, 2001, "Uneven Development: Local Authorities and Workfare in Germany," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press,

◆Spies, Henk and Rik van Berkel, 2001, "Workfare in the Netherlands: Young Unemployed People and the Jobseeker's Employment Act," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press,

◆Lodemel, Ivar, 2001, "National Objectives and Local Implementation of Workfare in Norway," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press,

◆Rosdahl, Anders and Hanner Weise, 2001, "When All Must Be Active: Workfare in Denmark," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press,

◆Trickey, Heather and Robert Walker, 2001, "Steps to Compulsion within British Labour Market Policies," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press, 181-213.

◆Wiseman, Michael, 2001, "Making Work for Welfare in the United States," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press, 215-47.

◆Trickey, Heather, 2001, "Comparing Workfare Programmes: Features and Implications," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press, 249-93.

◆Lodemel, Ivar, 2001, "Discussion: Workfare in the Welfare State," Ivar Lodemel and Heather Trickey eds., An Offer You Can Refuse: Workfare in International Perspective, Bristol: The Policy Press, 295-343.


■メモ

◆裏表紙

・ワークフェアなど新しいプログラムについての初めての体系的な国際比較研究。積極的な福祉国家を理解するためのオリジナルな理論枠組みを展開。

「この10年間、先進国の福祉国家が目の当たりにしてきた振り子の振れとは、社会支援への無条件の権原[entitlement]から、財政援助の受給に結び付けられた義務と条件をことさら強調するようになったことである。行政上の改革を通して、権原の条件は狭められてきた。受給者に強制的な労働を課すことで、国家と無保険で失業中の人々との契約は変化している。」
「EUの資金供給を受けてなされた研究成果である本書は、「ワーク・フォー・ウェルフェア」―(あるいはワークフェア)―プログラムを比較するが、これを客観的に行うのは本書が初めてである。本書が十分に検討するのは、刊行されている米国発の基本構想と並んで、よく見落とされがちなヨーロッパの六カ国(フランス、ドイツ、オランダ、ノルウェイ、デンマーク、イギリス)からのワークフェア・プログラムの事例である。ワークフェアプログラムの詳細が容易に利用しやすい形式で照合されたのは、まさに初めてのことである。」



◆1 A New Contract for Social Assistance

Introduction
Defining Workfare
 Workfare is compulsory
 Workfare is primarily about work
 Workfare is a part of social assistance
 A change in the contract of social assistance
From Passive to Active Policies
Ideological Contexts for Workfare
 Social exclusion and worklessness
 Dependency and worklessness
Structural Context to the Seven Nations
Active Labour Market Policies
 Welfare state typologies
 Typologies of social assistance
 Taxonomies of workfare
Programmes and Timing of Legislation
Summary



◆7 Steps to Compulsion within British Labour Market Policies

Introduction
Unemployment and 'worklessness'
Unemployed People and Social Security
Developments in Conditionality and Entitlement: Pre-New Labour
New Labour's Welfare Reform
 Reform and rhetoric
 The reform package
   Welfare to work
   Making work pay
   Security for those who cannot work
Current Compulsory Work Measures
 Young people aged 18-24
 Over 25-year-olds
 School leavers aged 16-17
Challenges to the Expansion of Compulsory Work
 Supply-side focus
 Work focus
Summary



◆8 Making Work for Welfare in the United States

Introduction
The American Social Assistance System
 The six programmes
 Key features
Origins of the New Workfare
Workfare 1980s Style
 The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981
 The Family Support Act
Into the 1980s
Policy at Mid-decade
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
 Block grants
 Expansion of state latitude
 Time limits
 End of entitlement
 Participation requirements
Recent Experience: A Tale of a City, Two States, Some Other Places, and the Country
 New York City
 Wisconsin
 California
 Other locations
Conclusions: What Workfare in America Means Today

8章:米国における福祉のための労働づくり

1.イントロ
2.アメリカの社会支援制度

3.新しいワークフェアの起源
・米国における最近のワークフェアの進展の道しるべ
a)OBRA:レーガン政権の福祉改革 b)FSA c)クリントンのウェイバー政策 d)PROWA
・1960年代後半から、自助を増加させるために、支援を労働や他の活動と連携させることが増加してきた
→4つの要因
@数年しか受給せず労働市場へ復帰する「移動者」の存在 → 留まる者への関心を増大
A女性の労働市場への参加 → 単親であっても義務なしの支援を提供する主張を弱める
B現金給付から労働力へ移動するインセンティブへの懐疑:下降している給付減少率は、職に就くよう努力しない福祉受給者が努力するような正のインセンティブをもたらすが、同じ変化が、既に労働力人口の中にいる人々にとっての労働供給を減少させ得る。 → この難問のせいで、他のインセンティブが求められるようになる。

★「時間のかかる労働要請は、社会支援によって提供された『余暇』という便益を減らすことによって、自助へ向かうためのインセンティブを増加させる。」(p222)
COBRA:AFDCの受給に労働や訓練の義務を関連付ける際に、助成金を受ける州の自由裁量を与えた。 → 政治家が社会支援に対して就労要請を強化するよう誘導、そのような義務に反対する人々を判別、AFDCの権原の制約を緩和することで前例を作る

4.ワークフェアの1980年代のスタイル
4-1.1981年の包括予算調整法(OBRA)



◆9 Comparing Workfare Programmes: Features and Implications

Introduction
Aims and Ideology
 Cost-cutting
 Preventing individualised dependency
 Combating exclusion
 Rights and responsibilities
 Intra-national variation in aims and ideology
 Summary: aims and ideology
Different Target Groups
 Who? Which groups?
 When? Timing of interventions
 What proportion? Universal versus selective programmes
 Summary: target groups
Administrative Framework
 Centralised versus decentralised framework
 Intra-national variation
 Summary: administrative framework
Divergence from Work-for-benefit
 Selecting suitable clients
 Tailoring placements to individual clients
   Work-for-benefit placements
   Subsidised work placements
   Created public work placements
   Non-work placements: education and social activation
   Negotiating placements
 Discretion in sanctioning individual clients
 Summary: divergence from work-for-benefit
Types of Workfare?
 European centralised programmes
 Other programmes
 Summary: types of workfare
Discussion: Implications for the Future



◆10 Discussion: Workfare in the Welfare State

Introduction
A Change Towards More or Less?
Does the Introduction of Workfare Programmes Involve a Convergence of National Social Assistance Schemes?
 Convergence resulting from diffusion across nations
 convergence resulting from programme effects
Tentative Explanations for Variation and Similarity
 Hypothesis 1: Politics matters
 Hypothesis 2: Scale matters
 Hypothesis 3: Policy inheritance matters
   Inheritance in social assistance
   Change without choice?
 Hypothesis 4: Target group matters
   Two functions of target group
   Variation in target group and in strategy
Discussion
Conclusion


・エンタイトルメント計画:「通常の歳出予算法以外の一般の法律により、一定の条件なり資格をもつ人に一定の給付を自動的に保証する計画であり、もとの法律を改正しないかぎり、通常の予算審議過程ではコントロールできない支出計画」〜一般経済条件の悪化により自動的に支出の増大となる性格がある (佐々木隆雄「福祉国家の成熟と転機」石崎昭彦・佐々木隆雄・鈴木直次・春田素夫『現代のアメリカ経済』東洋経済新報社、19830908)


製作:小林勇人(立命館大学大学院先端総合学術研究科)
UP:20061230, 20070105 http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/gr/gsce/db2000/0100li.htm
「ワークフェアの普及」ファイルワークフェア関連年表

TOP  HOME(http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/gr/gsce/)