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Albelda, Randy and Ann Withorn eds., 20020501, Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition.


Albelda, Randy and Ann Withorn eds., 20020501, Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond (Paperback) , Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition. 10+244p $18.00 ISBN-10: 0896086585 [amazon](inside) (An earlier version of this work originally appeared as volume 577 of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science and is expanded here with the kind permission of Sage Publications.)



◆Ehrenreich, Barbara, 20020501, "Preface," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, vii-x.
◆Albelda, Randy and Ann Withorn, 20020501, "Introduction," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 1-8.
◆Gordon, Linda, 20020501, "Who Deserves Help? Who Must Provide?," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 9-26.
◆Piven, Frances Fox, 20020501, "Globalization, American Politics, and Welfare Policy," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 27-42.
◆Burnham, Linda, 20020501, "Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Color," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 43-56.
◆Schram, Sanford F. and Joe Soss, 20020501, "Success Stories: Welfare Reform, Policy Discourse, and the Politics of Research," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 57-78.
◆Alvelda, Randy, 20020501, "Fallacies of Welfare-to-Work Policies," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 79-94.
◆Mink, Gwendolyn, 20020501, "Violating Women: Rights Abuses in the Welfare Police State," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 95-112.
◆Neubeck, Kenneth J., 20020501, "Attacking Welfare Racism/Honoring Poor People's Human Rights," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 113-128.
◆Jennings, James, 20020501, "Welfare Reform and Neighborhoods: Race and Civic Participation," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 129-144.
◆Withorn, Ann, 20020501, "Friends or Foes? Non-profits and the Puzzle of Welfare Reform," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 145-162.
◆Abramovitz, Mimi, 20020501, "Learning from the History of Poor and Working-Class Women's Activism," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 163-178.
◆White, Lucie E., 20020501, "Closing the Care Gap that Welfare Reform Left Behind," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 179-194.
◆Baptist, Willie and Mary Bricker-Jenkins, 20020501, "A View from the Bottom: Poor People and Their Allies Respond to Welfare Reform," Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn eds., Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty, and Beyond, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1st edition, 195-210.




■Contents

Preface
Introduction
 Purpose and Limits of This Book
 Going Deeper: Necessary Questions about Welfare Reform as We know It
 hopes Raised
Who Deserves Help? Who Must Provide?
 The Ethics and Structures of Deservingness
 The Gender of Deservingness
 The Race of Deservingness
 Stigmatizing Welfare
Globalization, American Politics, and Welfare Policy
 The Politics of Greed
 The Arguments against Welfare
 The New Welfare Regime
 What Happened to Democratic Politics?
Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Color
 Increasing Family Hardship
 Women of Color and Immigrant Women
 Welfare Reform Is Incompatible with Women's Human Rights
Success Stories: Welfare Reform, Policy Discourse, and the Politics of Research
 Welfare Reform as a Success Story
 Constructing the Standards of Policy Success
 from Possible Interpretations to Authentic Facts
 Conclusion
Fallacies of Welfare-to-Work Policies
 Welfare to What?
 The Work Debate
 The Problems Not Discussed
 The Value Debates
 What We Need
Violating Women: Rights Abuses in the Welfare Police State
 Women's Rights under TANF
 Ensuring Independence
Attacking Welfare Racism/Honoring Poor People's Human Rights
 Welfare Racism and PRWORA
 PRWORA, State's Rights, and Expressions of Welfare Racism
 Challenging Economic and Social Human Rights Violations
 Conclusion
Welfare Reform and Neighborhoods: Race and Civic Participation
 Welfare Reform and Race
 Welfare Reform and Neighborhood Revitalization
 Welfare Reform and Civic Participation
 Conclusion
Friends or Foes? Non-profits and the Puzzle of Welfare Reform
 Agency Worries in the Post-Welfare Reform Era--Initial Worries
 View from the Trenches in 2001: Worrying Less, Accommodating More
 New Concerns
 Deeper Dangers: "Let's Pretend"
 Can this Contradiction be Saved? Hope from the Trenches
Learning from the History of Poor and Working-Class Women's Activism
 Workplace Activism at the Point of Production
 The Community: Activism at the Point of Consumption
 Welfare State Activism at the Point of State Intervention
 Broadening the Agenda
 Conclusion
Closing the Care Gap that Welfare Reform Left Behind
 Why a Work-Based Welfare System?
 The Historical Roots of the Challenge
 A Realistic Work-Based Safety Net: The Case of Child Care
 Conclusion: A Ground of Income Security
A View from the Bottom: Poor People and Their Allies Respond to Welfare Reform
 The Intellectual Scaffolding: Our Estimate of the Situation
 Organizational Scaffolding
 The Strategic Scaffolding: Building a Movement to End Poverty

Appendix A Guide to Organizations and Resource Centers
Appendix B Guide to Government and Statistical Resources on the Internet
Appendix C Guide to Poverty Research Materials

About the Contributors
Index



■Memo

Fallacies of Welfare-to-Work Policies
 The Work Debate

ウェルフェア・トゥー・ワークの問題点
@「そもそも職があるかどうかと、数百万のウェルフェア・マザー有給雇用を探すとき低賃金労働市場に何が起こるか」
→例外的な好景気でもなければ、教育もスキルもない者が職に就くのは困難
Hoynes, Hilary W., 2000, "The Employment, Earnings, and Income of Less Skilled Workers over the Business Cycle," David E. Card and Rebecca M. Blank eds., Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform, New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 23-71.
Smith, David M. and Stephen A. Woodbury, 2000, "Low-Wage Labor Markets: Changes over the Business Cycle and Differences Across Region and Location," Kelleen Kaye and Demetra Smith Nightingale eds., The Low-Wage Labor Market: Challenges and Opportunities for Economic Self-Sufficiency, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
→底辺労働者の賃金を減らす
Burtless, Gary, 2000, "Can the Labor Market Absorb Three Million Welfare Recipients?," Kelleen Kaye and Demetra Smith Nightingale eds., The Low-Wage Labor Market: Challenges and Opportunities for Economic Self-Sufficiency, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Bartik, Timothy J., 2000, "Displacement and Wage Effects of Welfare Reform," David E. Card and Rebecca M. Blank eds., Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform, New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 23-71.

A女性が得る賃金の低さ
Robert Solow, 1998a, "Lecture I: Guess Who Likes Workfare?," Amy Gutmann ed., Work and Welfare, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Robert Solow, 1998b, "Lecture II: Guess Who Pays for Workfare?," Amy Gutmann ed., Work and Welfare, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
→貧困者や福祉受給者をワーキング・プアへ転換
「社会はシングルマザーが低賃金労働市場に参入し貧困から抜け出すことを求めることはできない。」
ワーキング・プアにはEITCがある。しかし、真に家族を支援するためにはcaregiverを雇うのに現金給付が要請されるため福祉利用は増加する。そのため多くの州は一般的な財政インセンティブを実施せず、期限付きの財政インセンティブ(受給資格の低所得制限を持つ)を用いる。

「主にこういう理由で、稼働所得を得て福祉を脱却する者や福祉を受給しながら稼働所得を得る者は、依然として貧困である(Danziger 2000)。」
Cf
Danziger, Sheldon, 2002, "Approaching the Limit: Early National Lessons from Welfare Reform," Bruce A. Weber, Greg J. Duncan, and Leslie A. Whitener eds., Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform, Kalamazoo: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Eemployment Research, 25-49.

Bウェルフェア・マザーの就労準備の問題

C母親が働くようになるために必要な補助的支援の問題=チャイルド・ケア

 The Problems Not Discussed
「ウェルフェア・トゥー・ワーク政策の批判のなかでほぼ常に無視されている、あるいは都合よく忘れられているのは、アメリカの労働市場は常に、公教育をほとんど受けず散発的な就労経験の女性を見捨ててきたということだ。」(86)

「家族の世話をするという仕事は、家族のブレッドウィナーになれという要望としばしば矛盾している。しかし、この労働−家族のジレンマは、福祉改革の研究や政策において見過ごされる。例えば、育児という仕事はウェルフェア・トゥー・ワーク戦略のなかで労働あるいは家族や経済の重要なインプットとしてとして理解されていない。むしろ、それは仕事に出かけることのコストとして理解され、女性たちが仕事を得る場合のみ彼女たちの家族責任は置き換えるべく重要なものとして認識されるのだ。」(87)

「ウェルフェア・トゥー・ワークについての議論の多くが正面から取り組まないこととは、あらゆる家族にとってのペイドワークとアンペイドワークについて複雑な本質である。・・・。貧困な母親をワーキング・プアな母親になるよう改革することを試みる代わりに、就労構造や、それが家族を支援する母親に可能な仕事を作るために必要なものをより詳しくみる必要がある。」(87)



・Appendixが充実している。

Appendix A Guide to Organizations and Resource Centers

Alliance for Justice
: Association of child welfare, environment, civil rights, mental health, child and consumer advocacy organizations.
http://www.afj.orgc
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
: Provides ihnformation on the legal rights of welfare recipients and on lawsuits against unconstitutional aspects of welfare reform.
http://www.aclu.org
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization (AFL-CIO)
: Federation of unions. Conducts organizing, research, education, and advocacy on labor issues.
http://www.aflcio.org
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME)
: Union of state and local public employees. Web site includes resources on welfare reform, links to federal and state information.
http://www.afscme.org/afscme/pol-leg/welftc.htm
American Public Human Services Association
: Umbrella group of human service administrators.
http://www.aphsa.org
Applied Research Center
Research and advocacy on issues of social justice and race. Includes Welfare Advocacy Research Project (WARP)
http://www.arc.org
Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN)
: Organizing in low-income and moderate-income communities.
http://www.acorn.org/community/
Center for an Urban Future
: Produces reports on economic development, child welfare, public education, and related issues.
http://www.citylimis.org/cuf/index.htm
http://www.nycfuture.org
Center for Community Change
: Provides organizing assistance to local groups run by low-income people.
http://www.communitychange.org
Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
: Research and policy analysis on issues affecting low-income families.
http://www.clasp.org
Center for Third World Organizing
: Provides training and organizing assistance. Includes Grass Roots Welfare Organizing Leadership (GROWL)
http://www.cbpp.org
http://www.cbpp.org/growl/
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
: Provides research and informaiton on federal and state government funding programs that affect low- and moderate-income people.
http://www.cbpp.org"
Center on Hunger and Poverty
: Applied research, policy analysis, and advocacy on poverty and hunger.
http://www.centeronhunger.org
Center on Social Welfare Policy and Law (Welfare Law Center)
: Legal and policy organization focused on means-tested cash public assistance programs. Provides legal representation for poor people.
http://www.welfarelaw.org
Center on Urban Poverty and Social Change
: Clearinghouse on census information, statistics, and welfare programs.
http://www.povertycenter.cwru.edu
Child Trends
: Provides research on the effects of welfare and poverty on children and other issues related to parenting.
http://www.childtrends.org
Children's Defense Fund
: Provides research, advocacy, public education, monitoring of federal agencies, and assistance to state and local groups.
http://www.childrensdefense.org
Coalition on Human Needs
: Alliance of more than 100 national groups addressing the needs of low-income people and other vulnerable Americans. Serves as an information clearinghouse.
http://www.chn.org/homeless
Economic Policy Institute
: Research on economic policy issues, particularly the economics of poverty, employment, inflation, industry, and problems of economic adjustment.
http://epinet.org
Electronic Policy Network at The American Prospect
: Internet content from and links to a variety of liberal policy organizations, including resources on welfare.
http://epn.org/index.html#test
http://epn.org/idea/welfare.html
Food Research and Action Center
: Provides assistance to groups working on problems of hunger and poverty.
http://www.frac.org
Hands net
: Includes Welfare Reform Watch, which covers current welfare reform efforts at the national, state and local levels.
http://www.handsnet.org
Inequality. Org
Network of journalists, writers, and researchers trying to look beyond conventional economics and its notions of prosperity and progress.
http://www.inequality.org
Institute for Global Change - IGC
: ProvidesInternet services to progressive individuals and groups. Contains links to PeaceNet, WomensNet, LaborNet, EcoNet, and AntiracismNet.
http://www.igc.org
Institute for Research on Poverty
: Organizes academic research conferences and ublishers papers on all aspects of poverty.
http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp
Institute for Women's Policy Research
: Researches economic issues important to women and families, including low-wage work, poverty, welfare reform, child care, family leave, and health care. Maintains Welfare Monitoring Listserv: WELFAREM-L
http://www.jwpr.org
Jobs with Justice
: Advocates for workers' rights; local chapters include coalitions of religious, labor, and community organizations active throughout the country.
http://www.jwj.org
Joint Center for Politcial and Economic Studies
: Research and advocacy on the socioeconomic status of black Americans and coalition building across race lines. Includes data bank on racial populations.
http://www.jointcenter.org
Joint Center for Poverty Research
: Organizes academic research conferences and publishes papers on all aspects of poverty. Housed at the Poverty, Race, and Inequality Program at
http://www.jcpr.org
Kensington Welfare Rights Union
: A multiracial organization of, by, and for poor and homeless people.
http://www.kwru.org
Low Income Housing Coalition
: Educates the publis and organizations about low-income housing through conferences, publications, and technical assistance.
http://www.nlihc.org
Low Income Networking and Communications Progect (LincProject)
: Information for and about groups of low-income people. Includes database of resources, a directory of grassroots organizations, and links to TANF reauthorization information.
http://www.lincproject.org
Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
: Research on welfare reform, working poor people, communities, families and children, and education.
http://www.mdrc.org
Mathermatica Policy Research, Inc.
: For-profit research corporation. Includes studies of welfare reform.
http://www.mathematica-mpr.com
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
: Works to achieve equal rights through the democratic process and to eliminate racial prejudice.
http://www.naacp.org/
National Association of Community Action Agencies
: National association of federally funded local antipoverty agencies. Resources include information about the National Dialogue on Poverty.
http://www.nacaa.org/
National Association of Neighborhoods
: Umbrella organization for community-based organizations and small businesses.
National Campaign for Jobs and Income Support
: Coalition of 1,000 grassroots organizations in 40 states seeking to advance progressive antipoverty policies. Part of LincProject to elevate the importance of poverty on the national agenda.
http://www.communitychange.org
http://www.maketanfwork.org/tanf/default.asp
National Center for Children in Poverty
: Research and education on children in poverty.
http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/nccp/
National Coalition for the Homeless
: Information clearinghouse. Includes directory of national, statewide, and local homeless advocacy coalitions and organizations.
http://www.nationalhomeless.org
National Council of La Raza
: Umbrella organization working for civil rights and economic opportunities for Latinos.
http://www.nclr.org
National Jobs for All Coalition
: Promotes living-wage jobs and links unemployment with other issues facing the nation, such as women's rights, the environment, and economic justice.
http://www.njfac.org
National Housing Institute
: Conducts research on housing, jobs, safety, and education.
http://www.nhi.org
National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty
: Advocates to protect rights of homeless people and to implement solutions to end homelessness through impact litigation, advocacy, and education.
http://www.nlchp.org
National Organization of Women
: Works to end discrimination and gender inequality in all facets of life and to increase the number of women elected to political office.
http://www.now.org
National Rainbow Coalition
: Encourages the development of a progressive political leadership dedicated to economic justice, peace, and human rights.
Natilnal Urban League
: Works for racial equality for African Americans and other minorities. Fights institutional racism and provides direct service to minority communities.
http://www.nul.org
Network
: A national catholic social justice lobby. Includes Welfare Reform Watch Project.
http://www.networklobby.org
Pew Partnership for Civic Change
: Conducts research on promising solutions crucial to strong communities.
http://www.pew-partnership.org
Poverty and Race Research Action Council
: Funds research linked to organizing and advocacy on issues of poverty and race.
http://www.pracc.org
Public Interest Clearinghouse
: Supports organizations that make the legal system more accessible and responsible.
http://www.pic.org
Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism
: Includes online database with up-to-date summaries of welfare research projects.
http://www.researchforum.org
Russell Sage Foundation
: Funds research on work, income inequality, and poverty. Publishes working papers and books.
http://www.russellsage.org
State Action Organization at the Center for Policy Alternatives
: Conducts research on welfare, affirmative action, domestic violence, family leave, crime, education, TANF funds, and health care.
http://www.stateaction.org
http://www.cfpa.org
United for a Fair Economy
: Conducts research and organizing on growing income, wage, and wealth inequality in the United States.
http://www.ufenet.org
Urban Institute
: Conducts research on poverty, inequality, and racial discrimination. Includes Assessing the New Federalism.
http://www.urban.org
http://newfederalism.urban.org
Welfare Information Network
: Clearinghouse for policy analysis, and technical assistance on welfare reform.
http://www.welfareinfo.org
Wider Opportunities for Women
: Provides organizing, skills training, and technical assistance for women workers to achieve economic independence and equality of opportunity.
http://www.wowonline.org

Appendix B Guide to Government and Statistical Resources on the Internet

Administration for Children and Families - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
: Assists state, county, and city government through funding, policy direction, and information on services to provide family assistance. Is the federal agency that administers Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. Resources include links to welfare, children, and families web pages.
http://www.acf.dhhs.gov
American Public Welfare Association - Welfare News in the States
: State-by-state descriptions of welfare reform initiatives.
http://www.apwa.org/statenew/textonly.htm
Child Welfare League of America - National Data Analysis System
: Works with state child welfare agencies to present a comprehensive interactive child welfare database: The National Data Analysis System (NDAS).
http://www.cwla.org
Children's Defense Fund - Selected Features of State Welfare Plans
: Profiles state welfare plans.
http://www.childrensdefense.org/stateplans.html
Federal Electronic Research and Review Extraction Tool (FERRET)
Provides access to statistics from the Current Population Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation.
http://Ferret.bls.census.gov/cgi-bin/ferret
Federal Statistics
: "One-stop shopping" for U.S. federal government statistics.
http://www.fedstats.gov
FirstGov
: Links to many federal, state, city and country government Web Sites.
http://www.firstgov.org
Government Information Sharing Project - USA Counties 1996
: Provides a Web interface to U.S. county-level census data. Includes poverty data by race, age, and family composition.
http://www.govinfo.kerr.orst.edu/usacostateis.html
National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics
: Aims to promote and exchange ideas for the betterment of research and statistics in the field of public welfare.
http://www.mawrs.org
National Conference of State Legislatures - Welfare Reform Connection
: Provides information about state and federal actions and analyses of key welfare issues.
http://www.ncsl.org/statefed/welfare/welfare.htm
National Partnership for Women and Families
: Contains a valuable resource list: "Impact of recent Changes in Welfare Programs on Racial and Ethnic Communities."
http://www.nationalpartnership.org
U.S. Census Bureau
: Contains statistical abstracts, housing and household economic statistics, income inequality, income statistics, and poverty graphs. Of particular interest: the Census Bureau's poverty Web site, porviding poverty definitions and the most recent national and state level poverty estimates
http://www.census.gov
http://www.census.gov.hhes/www/poverty.html
Unites State General Accounting Office
: Investigative arm of Congress. Provides analysis options and recommendations for Congress to make improved and effective policy. Checks the constitutionality of legislation and evaluates use of publis funds and federal programs and activities.
http://www.gao.gov
Welfare Reform Bill of 1996: HR3734, Personal Responsibility, Work Opportunity, and Medicaid Restructuring Act of 1996
: This site offers direct and easy access to the complete text version of the welfare bill passed in 1996.
http://www.livertynet.org/~edciv/iscvhome.html

Appendix C Guide to Poverty Research Materials

Center for Law and Social Policy Update
: Lists the most recent developments in welfare issues.
http://www.clasp.org
Community Change
: Center for Community Change newsletter combining useful "how-to," commentary ,reports, and profiles of grassroots organizations.
http://www.communitychange.org
Focus
: Institute for Research on Poverty quarterly research summaries.
http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp
Green Book or Background Material and Data on Major Programs within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means (or the U.S. House of Representatives)
: Detailed information on major federal entitlement programs.
http://www.gpo.gov
Insight & Action: The Human Needs Report
: Coalition on Human Needs biweekly newsletter and legislative update.
http://www.chn.org
Money Income in the United State (Current Populatoin Reports)
: U.S. Bureau of the Census annual summary of income data.
http://www.gpo.gov
NAPCWA Network
: National Association of Public Child Welfare Administrators quarterly newsletter on child welfare legislation and practice.
http://www.aphsa.org
Poverty in the United State (Currento Population Reports)
: U.S. Bureau of the Census annual summary of poverty data.
http://www.gpo.gov
Poverty & Race
: Poverty and Race Research Action Council bimonthly.
http://www.pracc.org
Poverty Research News
: Joint Center for Poverty Research quarterly research summaries.
http://www.jcpr.org
Statistical Abstract of the United States
: U.S. Bureau of the Census annual general economic data.
http://www.census.go
Survival News
: Grassroots welfare rights newspaper published by recipients.
Welfare News
: Center for Social Welfare Policy and Law newsletter on recent legislative developments.
http://www.welfarelaw.org


製作:小林勇人(立命館大学大学院先端総合学術研究科)
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