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Walker, Robert and Michael Wiseman eds., 20030521, The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press.


Walker, Robert and Michael Wiseman eds., 20030521, The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, (Paperback), Bristol: The Policy Press. iv+201p. £21.99 ISBN-10: 1861344074 [amazon]



◆Walker, Robert and Michael Wiseman, "Sharing Ideas on Welfare," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 1-24.

◆Wiseman, Michael, "Welfare in the United States," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 25-64.

◆Deacon, Alan, "The British Perspective on Reform: Transfers from, and a Lesson for, the US," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 65-80.

◆Brewer, Mike and Paul Gregg, "Eradicating Child Poverty in Britain: Welfare Reform and Children since 1997," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 81-114.

◆Millar, Jane, "The Art of Persuasion? The British New Deal for Lone Parents," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 115-42.

◆Stafford, Bruce, "Beyond Lone Parents: Extending Welfare-to-work to Disabled People and the Young Unemployed," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 143-74.

◆Walker, Robert and Michael Wiseman, "Shaping a Vision of US Welfare," Robert Walker and Michael Wiseman eds., The Welfare We Want: The British Challenge for American Reform, Bristol: The Policy Press, 175-91.



■Contents

Acknowledgments

1. Sharing Ideas on Welfare

Anticlimax as prologue / The limits to comparability / Origins of British welfare policies / New Labour / The rest of the book


2. Welfare in the United States

The system
 Major means-tested programmes / Benefit and family category / The combined benefit Benefits and poberty / Observations

Welfare politics
 AFDC in the dock / Waivers and reform / The 1992 Campaign and the Clinton administration strategy

Welfare (as we knew it) ended
 Block grants / Expansion of latitude / Time limits / The end of entitlement / Work requirements / The Federal role

Outcomes
 Caseload decline: effect and cause / Responding to PRWORA / The stealth contraction ( Benefits / Access / Funding ) / Running helter-skelter / What has happened to families? ( Benefit receipt / Employment / Income distribution / Poverty) / Summary and implications

Reauthorisation
 The White House proposal ( Funding / Federalism / Eligibility / Participation / Performance / Marriage and the family / Food stamps ) / The opposition / The Senate proposal / The outcome

The issues
 Funding / Rationalisation / Performance / Learning / Vision


3. The British Perspective on Reform: Transfers from, and a Lesson for, the US

An integrative approach
 The enforcement of obligations / The centrality of paid work / Rebuilding popular support for welfare / An end to child poverty as we know it?

Conclusion


4. Eradicating Child Poverty in Britain: Welfare Reform and Children since 1997

Motivation
 The changing economy / Income poverty and worklessness in households with children / The impact of deprivation on life chances

Measuring and defining child poverty

The strategy
 I. Raise direct financial support for families with children, targeted on - but not exclusive to - low-income families ( Increased generosity of Child Benefit / Children's Tax Credit / Working Families' Tax Credit / Childcare Tax Credit )
 II. Reduce the number of children living in workless households ( Reform of tax and benefits structure / Case management / National childcare strategy )
 III. Reduce incidence and severity of scarring factors from childhood and early adulthood ( Sure Start / Raising educational qualifications on leaving school / Educational Maintenance Allowance )

What the reform package has accomplished so far
 I. Number of children below the poverty line
 II. Increased financial support to low-income families with children ( Policy impact / Transatlantic comparisons )
 III. Marginal deduction rates and overall incentives to work

Lone parents' employment change: Early evidence

Future directions
 Jobcentre Plus, and the expansion of case management in the welfare system / Integration of child support payments

Conclusion and assessment


5. The Art of Persuasion? The British New Deal for Lone Parents

Lone parenthood in Britain / Labour's policy for lone parents / The New Deal for Lone Parents: Evidence on participation, outcomes, and process ( Participation and take-up / Outcomes / Process ) / A New Deal success / Policy moving on


6. Beyond Lone Parents: Extending Welfare-to-work to Disabled People and the Young Unemployed

Introduction

The programmes in brief
 The New Deal for Young People / The New Deal for Disabled People

Context
 Policy / Background to the New Deal for Young People / Background to the New Deal for Disabled People

Looking closer
 Target client group / Objectives / Models of delivery / Programme content / Degree of compulsion / Links with employers

Achievements

Programme size
 The New Deal for Young People / The New Deal for Disabled People

Programme outcomes
 The New Deal for Young People / The New Deal for Disabled People / Policies update

Conclusion


7. Shaping a Vision of US Welfare

Preparing the ground / Strategic vision / Working mothers / Extending the logic of welfare-to-work (Youth unemployment / Incapacity ) / The next rounds of exchange (Incentives / Job retention and advancement / The hard-to-serve / Management / Coping with scale / Promoting evidence-based policy making) / Towards the welfare we want (Adequate / Coherent / Ambitious / Dynamic)




■メモ

1. Sharing Ideas on Welfare
Origins of British welfare policies

1996年に・・・。「同年、初めてのイギリスの「ワークフェア」制度(Project Work)が、2年以上失業中の18歳から24歳までの者に対して、試験的に行われた[pilot]。」(14)

2. Welfare in the United States
Welfare politics
 Waivers and reform

「これらの証明が必要とした実験とは、求職要請を徹底的に実施するものであったが、いくつかの場合には、受給者によるアンペイドの公共サービスの仕事を給付金の見返りに要請するもの――「ワークフェア」として知られるようになった実践であった(Walker, 1991)。」(34)

6. Beyond Lone Parents: Extending Welfare-to-work to Disabled People and the Young Unemployed
Notes 7

「たとえそうであったとしても、政治家は始めは制裁を課すことを警戒していたし、New Deal for Young Peopleあるいは保守党政権によって試験的に行われた極めて似通った制度であるProject Workが「ワークフェア」であるということを示唆することをしきりに避けたがっていた。給付金は、特に社会保険の給付金に関しては、社会権として利用可能であるべきだという考えに対しては強い愛着が存在するが、そのことは強制が初期には若年者に限定されていたことの別の理由であった。彼/女らは、実証できる低所得が原因というよりも、保険料の支払い記録に基づいて、高齢者に比べて求職者手当を受け取る可能性が低い。」

7. Shaping a Vision of US Welfare
Preparing the ground

「ジョン・メイジャーに率いられた保守党政権は1990年代半ばにワークフェア制度を試みた[trialed]が、Deaconが述べるように、アメリカのコミュニタリアニズムとニュー・パターナリズムを頼る現在の労働党政権こそが、改革の核において福祉受給者の義務と応答責任を強調してきたのであった。」(176)


製作:小林勇人(立命館大学大学院先端総合学術研究科)
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