A Contemporary History of Ideas and Activities concerning Labor of Housewives in Postwar Japan

MURAKAMI Kiyoshi

This is a contemporary historical study on ideas and activities concerning labor of housewives in postwar Japan. There were a lot of controversies and proposals on the housewife's labor. But little is known about autonomous practices that pursued an original theory by the persons concerned. In this dissertation, I clarify problems of the former and latter importance.
@In the first chapter of this dissertation I examine the first controversy in Japan over the housewife's working in the labor market. The content of the controversy was whether housewives should work or not from start to finish. The existence of housewives who had to work from the economical necessity has been concealed in that.
@In the second chapter, I examine the evaluation concerning the initial aspect of part-time working. Researchers of woman's work recognized that the labor consciousness of housewives working part time was low and caught them as a target of enlightenment and mobilization for major labor movement.
@In the third chapter, I examine how the concept of 'the situation as housewives' has been raised the question by persons concerned through the verification of the women's practices in 1970's Tokyo. 'The situation as housewives' is the key word that explains discriminatory situation imposed on all women. That concept had a progressive influence on the women's liberation movement afterwards.
@On and after the fourth chapter, I examine the thoughts and practices of women who were housewives and activists of women's liberation movement. First, I studied the Housewives Front that acted in Tokyo since 1978. That was a heretic in the women's liberation movement and the female labor movement. They opposed gender equalitarianism as meritocracy and aimed at total liberation for women. The Liaison Meeting of Part-time Workers and Unorganized Labor that was derived from the group practiced radical movements concerning irregular employees.