Advanced Mathematics and Physics -Mathematics Course-
Advanced Mathematics and Physics -Physics Course-
Advanced Electrical, Electronic and Computer Systems
Advanced Mechanical Engineering and Robotics
Advanced Architectural, Environmental and Civil Engineering
Semiclassical analysis is an asymptotic analysis where the Planck constant appearing in the Schrödinger equation is regarded as a small parameter. Under certain conditions, quantum mechanics is expected to approach classical mechanics in the semiclassical limit (Bohr’s correspondence principle). The asymptotic distribution of eigenvalues or resonances created by a bound or semibound state, respectively, is closely related to the existence and the geometry of “trapped” trajectories of the corresponding classical dynamics.
This problem is an extension of the famous question “Can one hear the shape of the drum?” (M. Kac), which examines the relationship between the geometry of a bounded domain and the asymptotic distribution of eigenvalues of its Dirichlet Laplacian. The useful WKB method consists of constructing an asymptotic power series solution globally with respect to the Planck constant. This power series diverges and the asymptotic form changes discontinuously when passing through turning points or caustics. This socalled Stokes phenomenon is a key to solve the above problem.
Homologically the same boundary groups configured with whole threedimensional homological spheres are an important subject of research related to the unsolved expectation of triangles being divisible by highdimensional manifolds, however, very little is known about the structure except the fact that it is a finitely generated Abelian group. My research involves homologically the same boundary invariants in seeking structures that particularly include the integer lifting of classic Rochlin invariants by applying gauge theory to Vmanifolds. Gauge theory can be used to extract topology information from nonlinear partial differential equations describing the field (particle) on the manifold. I focus on the contribution made by the singular point of a Vmanifold and configure the integer lift of an Ochanine invariant based on elliptic genus and unbound algebra related to the same boundary of the threedimensional manifold and the functor in a certain type of zone with a commutative ring in order to consider the relationship between basic group, homological algebra and gauge theory more.
Research within the number theory field undertaken at our laboratory involves the overall aim of researching automorphic L functions. Automorphic L functions are part of the Riemann zeta function family and are considered to be one of the most important of currently known L functions. Knowledge exists on various zeta functions and L functions throughout the world; however, it is no exaggeration to say that discovering a new L function or the relationship between L functions is the ultimate goal of number theory. Number theory plays an important role in cryptographic and authentication technology, both essential tools in our modern day advanced information network society. We are also involved in basic mathematical research on high-speed algorithms that related to networks.
I specialize in number theory, and recently in particular classifying elliptic curves found in real quadratic fields. The cue to why I began to be interested in number theory was a book entitled "Fermat's last theorem" that was written by my instructor Norio Adachi while I was at university (Waseda), and why I began to be interested in elliptic curves is that elliptic curve theory was used to solve Fermat's last theorem. One of the great charms of number theory is its concreteness. Quadratic fields and elliptic curves are concrete and can be easily put into practice; however, they still involve lot of unsolved problems. My aim is to quickly solve those problems, and hence I hope students can be helpful.
My research interests are centered on various applied and theoretical aspects of simulation
for stochastic systems which evolve with time.
In particular, stochastic equations of different types. These equations may have various applications in finance, engineering and physics. One of the challenges consists in studying their theoretical properties and obtaining eficient simulation methods.
Therefore students working with me may do theoretical studies related with these problems or either simulation studies which have a strong mathematically oriented theoretical basis. We sometimes also try to test newly proposed simulation methods and find some theoretical basis to explain their behavior. The goal is to obtain fast and accurate methods that can be used in various practical problems and therefore there is a strive to achieve some generality over particularity.
Usually, students working on simulations will be proficient in C programming or other similar languages such as scilab or octave. On the theoretical side, we request basic knowledge and interest in either probability theory, stochastic process or Monte Carlo methods. Our students, usually interact with the group of mathematical finance where they can also experience the direct feeling of applications to real problems. Therefore our group is very active, we encourage discussions between students, visitors and professors. We have frequent seminars, many times given by visitors from various countries and backgrounds therefore achieving a high scientific interaction which promotes learning and the spread of information.
We also encourage communication in foreign languages due to the multi-culturality of our group.
Symmetric spaces form an important geometric subject in research as they have good characteristic. They are spaces that have point symmetry, with Euclidean space, projective space, hyperbolic space etc being representative of them. Hoomogeneous Kaehler manifold are more generalized spaces than Hermitian symmetric spaces, whose structure as complex manifolds had been clarified upon in the 1980's. Lie group theory and Lie algebra theory are the main tools used when researching homogeneous Kaehler manifolds. The duality between the compact type and the non-compact type in symmetric spaces can be partially found in homogeneous Kaehler manifolds on which semi-simple Lie groups act transitively. Determining all homogeneous Kaehler structures of one complex manifold is also an interesting problem.
Functional analysis of the abstraction of mathematical models for use in revealing their essence is the main subject of this laboratory; however, recently, various graduate level research that includes mathematical physics, braid theory, topology, partial differential equations and probability theory is also taking place. We are also working on graduate level research linked to educational material for use in for junior high and high school education.
Operator algebras theory, which is known as "infinitedimensional linear algebra", is the research subject. Banach space theory was developed using the concept, and thought was given to functional spaces that can be configured with a vector space of functions rather than a function representing individual phenomenon, However, we are working on the classification problem of C*- algebras generated by inserting an algebraic structure within them.
Recently we have also been working on a problem connected to a monotonically increasing function that is applicable in economic theory and achieving a new result for Jensen's inequality, which is a generalization of the arithmetic and geometric means that are presumably so familiar to high school students.
Dr Takayama's main research interest is algebraic geometry in positive characteristic, which covers many interesting phenomena that are quite different from the phenomena covered by algebraic geometry in characteristic zero such as complex algebraic geometry and complex differential geometry. For example, Kodaira vanishing theorem and Bertini's theorem of hypersurface intersection play important roles in complex algebraic geometry. However, these theorems do not generally hold in positive characteristic. In addition, we do not yet know how Hironaka's theorem of resolution of singularities, which is also a fundamental result in complex algebraic geometry, holds in positive characteristic. This means that geometry in positive characteristic is much more complex or in a way richer than complex algebraic geometry and presents many interesting research problems. Dr. Takayama's approach to this field involves the use of commutative ring theory and methods generally employed in algebraic geometry in characteristic zero.
The extraordinary development and success of mathematics in the 20th century owe substantially to the incorporation of "the paradox of infinity", namely, to the daring decision to introduce actual infinity into mathematics despite of the long philosophical common sense since Aristotle that actually infinity is simply a stupid nonsense.
Thus, in modern mathematics, the natural number sequence 1,2,3,... makes up a uniquely defined actual infinity, the set of natural numbers. In other words the concept of finiteness is unique and sharply discriminated from that of infiniteness.
Unfortunately, this decision made modern mathematics extremely difficult to evolve the intuition of qualitative diversity in the finite world. We anticipate the 21st century mathematics will create rich concepts for understanding qualitative diversity in the finite world, making reliable and effective mathematical base for theoretical researches in life science.
In the laboratory, undergraduate students are advised to do various experiments in mathematics by employing powerful mathematical softwares such as z compiled in the Knoppix/Math in order to develop familiarity with concrete objects in huge finite world, which will be helpful in their carrier academic or not, while graduate tudents are encouraged to participate in the development of alternative mathematics incorporating huge numbers into mathematics.
The subject of our research is mathematical structure with a background of quantum mechanics revealed through use of
classical dynamics written with differential equations and the spectrum (characteristic value) of its differential operator. Differential equations used to describe typical phenomenon have mathematically pleasing structures, and the analysis is in a field where the various analytical approaches (linear algebra, complex analysis, functional analysis, Fourier analysis) you learnt at university can flourish. Analytical theory of differential equations is taught according to each student's interest at the graduate level in particular.
I am analyzing differential equations that have small parameters (singular perturbations). This field of research field is known as quasi-classical analysis because it links quantum mechanics to classical dynamics. The keyword to it is Stokes' phenomenon. It can be seen for the first time in the world of complex numbers, making it a very interesting problem mathematically.
The study of modern probability theory.
If the "result" that can be obtained is limited (two sides of a coin toss or the throw of a dice etc) the probability of each "result" primarily considered, however, the obtainable "result" will be non-countable and unlimited, in that the probability of each "result" in the limited case results in a contrariety, even if a value could be set for the probability.
Modern probability theory resolves this dilemma by abstracting the concept and measuring the size, thus enabling probability that is non-countable and has unlimited "results" to be considered. However, that abstraction does result in a new dilemma: the existence of an assembly for which the size cannot be measured. As revealed above probability theory is an interesting research subject. It is also an interesting mathematical field that has the aspect of being actually applicable in various parts in society by being linked to statistical methods.
Soft matter involves systems with original structures and dynamics of the medium scale between macro scale and micro scale that have hierarchical structures in the rich time space of micro to macro. For example, macromolecules, colloids, liquid crystal, emulsions, and powders etc are all soft matter. Research on each of the type matters has been conducted for some time now, however, in recent years attempts are being made to collectively describe them as soft matter in understanding their physical phenomenon. We are promoting research with an interest in glass transformations, structural formations resulting from crystallization, glass dynamics, dewetting phenomenon, and the dynamics of ionic liquids etc of the macromolecules involved in the phenomenon.
My field of research is theoretical physics, and the phenomenon known as chaos in particular. Physical laws are said to be simple, however, why then is phenomenon that occurs around us so complicated? And even if the law is superficially simple the motion that follows the law is not always that simple. Chaos is the mechanism that complicates motion and predictions. Physical systems in this world are considered to contain chaotic motion of a scale ranging from at the atomic/ molecular level and of nuclei or ultra-small scale through to Solar Systems or huge scale, and universes at an even larger scale. Thermal motion is complexly chaotic and implemented by a large number of atomic molecules clashing against each other. The reason why making meteorological forecasts is so difficult is that air flow is chaotic. We are even yet to have completely describing complex natural phenomenon known to include chaotic behavior in words. Creating them is one of my (our) themes.
Characteristics of a material are mostly decided by the characteristics of electrons in that material. For example, glass is transparent because electrons in glass do not absorb light.
Electrons revolve around the nucleus as they rotate themselves. This rotation is called "spin". The reason why iron becomes a magnet is that electrons in iron tend to have spin with a certain direction. Electron spin causes many other interesting phenomena. For example, a metal becomes an insulator when its temperature is changed. The goal of our research is to elucidate the mechanisms of such phenomena related to electron spin.
In order to unveil the electronic states in materials, we perform experiments both at the campus and facilities such as SPring-8. Main experiment is "photoemission," which measures the energy of electrons emitted from a material under application of ultraviolet light or x-ray.
In dielectrics, most of the energy is transferred by the motion of the atoms, or by the “phonons”, the quanta of the sound wave in matters. The phonons play important roles in ferroelectricity and in the thermal dynamics in dielectrics. In particular, some ferroelectric crystals allow the heat to become a “wave”, rather than to allow it only to diffuse as we experience usually. We use ultrafast laser sources to excite a “coherent wave of heat” in certain ferroelectric crystals. We also use an ultra-high (kHz) resolution stimulated Brillouin spectrometer to unveil the pho-non linewidth in crystals and glass-forming materials at cryo-genic temperatures. The high-resolution spontaneous Brillouin light scattering method is used, for example, to investigate the “fractal dynamics” in ferroelectric single crystals.
We are exploring the highenergy Universe, which cannot be seen in optical light, with gamma-rays. Gamma-rays are emitted from highenergy objects in the Universe, such as supernova remnants, pulsars and pulsar nebulae, and active galactic nuclei. Electrons and protons are accelerated to high energies in these objects and produce gamma-rays via interaction with surrounding radiation and matter. Gamma-rays are the best probe of particle acceleration in the Universe since they travel straight and are not deflected by magnetic fields. In addition, the annihilation of dark matter particles could be detected by gamma-rays. Also we are operating a 60cm optical telescope in the BKC campus to explore timevarying astrophysical objects.
Science in recent years has been clarifying a lot of enigmas, from the micro world that includes subnuclear particles to the macro world that includes cosmic space. However, in the medium that links micro to macro, or nanometer world (a few to several hundred arranged atoms or molecules) there is a lot of interesting phenomenon whose mechanisms have yet to have been clarified. At our laboratory we focus on how atoms and molecules gather together, break up or react in various materials, regardless of being organic and inorganic, or more concretely the phase transformation process and interface phenomenon. For example, we target metallic quantum dots created on semiconductors, ultra-thin films created using a single organic molecule layer, and the crystals of proteins etc. We research changes in atomic/ molecular alignment using the latest microscopes and analyzers by creating the materials ourselves.
An ultra strong light source of synchrotron radiation (SR) with wavelengths of 1 micrometer to 1 nanometer is available at SRCenter in this campus. We developed various experimental facilities which open new research field of science by using SR. For example, experimental apparatuses of a high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and two dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) for studies of electronic states of materials and surfaces, of X-ray absorption fine structure for local structure analysis of non-crystalline materials and of a soft x-ray microscope (SXMS) for observation of biological samples in sub-micron-meter scale have been developed and opened to researchers from outside as well as in-house users(students and staff). Research themes of our laboratory are (i) creating one-dimensional atomic-chain-like materials on stepped crystal surfaces and then measuring its unprecedented physical characteristics by PES and scanning tunneling microscope (ii) internal mechanism of endocytosis of cells and the biology of pico-plankton in Lake Biwa for environmental analysis by SXMS, and others.
I've been coordinating a 5-year project "observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risk" in a JST-JICA program for or Science And Technology REsearch Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS). Having been appointed as a dedicated research professor, I have been spending lots of time in South Africa to monitor earthquakes (2>M) at the closest proximity at depths from 1km to 3.4km from the surface. These can be attempted only at South African gold mines in the world. We have worked with about 20 researchers from 5 universities and two research organizations in Japan, and more than 100 people in South Africa (researchers, mining houses and geotechnical consultant companies). Unprecedented arrays with a large number of sensors have been deployed, being ready to closely monitoring generation of target earthquake activities. We couldn't foresee the 2011 M9.0 earthquake (Tohoku earthquake). We try our best to demonstrate how seismology can contribute to mitigate seismic risk in South Africa.
Every physical system is constantly changing its state both at a microscopic and a macroscopic level.
In the time evolution of the system, one can find wide varieties of dynamics. In particular, nonlinear dynamics often bring a highly complicated behavior to the system.
The main interest of our research group is to understand the complicated motion of atoms and molecules from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics with the help of numerical simulation. I have been investigating the dynamics of nano particles whose motion is dominated by a large fluctuation.
For instance, small Au particles are known to change their shape continuously even below melting point.
Such an isomerization process is a typical case where the nonlinearlity in dynamics plays a primary role for the transition.
One of our goals is to give a firm theoretical basis to the understanding of chaotic motion, which can be experimentally observed for various nano-sized systems.
Elementary particle theory could be a field of science aiming at a unified description of elementary particles, which are the source of all matter and interactions, also searching for an answer to a fundamental question: ‘how did our universe begin?’. Establishing the unification theory for elementary particles is the long-held dream of theoretical physicists, however, the journey until completion remains long. Superstring theory has been expected to be the most hopeful candidate of unification theory including the quantum gravity, which is still incomplete. Therefore, Superstring theory has been actively researched as a cutting-edge area in theoretical physics all around the world. At this laboratory, we are researching elementary particle physics, mainly focusing on Superstring theory, as well as deeply related topics in cosmology and the physics of black holes.
Our group focuses on understanding mechanisms underlying different forms and motions found in the natural world (including our daily life), with much emphasis on microbiology, plants, and other biological systems. Our research is mainly theoretical, and different physical approaches such as nonequilibrium physics, continuum mechanics of fluids and solids, softmatter physics, and pattern fomation dynamics, are all employed to understand biological systems and other macroscopic natural phenomena. Our research style finds a particular importance on a close link with experimental results, so we often work together with physical and biological experimetalists in other groups.
Anywhere a physical quantity corresponds to a point of space such as an electric field or magnetic field is referred to as a field, and the motion described using quantum field theory. The theory is a basic way of understanding nature, from the micro world that includes nuclei, subnuclear particles and atomic molecules through to the macro world that includes the mechanism of the universe. Field theory is a basic method used in thinking about the symmetry of the natural world, and can reveal the beauty behind it.
It can also suddenly appear in the macro world through phenomenon such as superfluidity and superconductivity. At this laboratory the problem of symmetry in the world of subnuclear particles and nuclei and a new quantum state of matter such as the Bose condensation state of atomic gases are theoretically worked on using field theory and with basic research on application in new technology such as gamma lasers.
The appearance of a new semiconductor known as gallium nitride resulted in blue light emitting diodes, white light emitting diodes and the Blu-ray Disc, completely changing our lives. If we can now extract the full potential of this semiconductor we will be able to create new optical/electronic devices that will solve important problems in the 21st century, which encompass energy, the environment, health and medical care etc. For example we can expect long-life light sources with less power consumption, solar cells of extremely high conversion efficiency, highly-efficient inverters that will support battery car technology, small and strong light sources for sterilization etc. Our laboratory is promoting global cutting-edge research from the fabrication of semiconductor materials through to evaluating their properties of and creating devices while obtaining support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry in order to realize semiconductor electronics that suit the 21st century.
Systems that do not require any batteries would be more convenient in that they would not require any maintenance and can be installed where people cannot reach such as in sensor networks and implantable computers. At our laboratory we are aiming at the research, development and application of a battery-less system that obviously does not require any batteries. In order to realize this research needs to cover the three points of the generation of energy (electricity generation technology), conversion (power supply conversion technology) and consumption (low-power LSI technology). As energy resources the natural energy existing around us such as light, thermal and motion energies need to be utilized. With regard to LSI-related research we are researching new power supply conversion circuit technology to enable stable electricity to be supplied from unstable natural energy sources to internal CPUs and extremely small circuit electric power technology. We have succeeded up to the creation of system but are now promoting the research in cooperation with external companies.
<Example of battery-less system>
There is no need to reiterate the importance of electronic systems that handle images. Displays and image sensors are essential parts for human interfaces, contributing to the evolution of our social life of information. These devices are based on electronic and photonic materials, which also provide firm foundations for solar energy harvesting, optical communication, and other various systems. This laboratory focuses on such electronic and photonic materials, devices and systems. Students have opportunities to acquire hands-on experience in a wide range of research topics. Our recent interests include organic transistors, laser backlight units, and liquid crystal/dye cells for displays and concentrator photovoltaics. For example, we utilize an external temperature gradient to control growth directions of crystalline organic thin films for transistor applications.
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The networking of electronic devices is the key technology for safe and comfortable society. High-security and low-power consumption are required for these electronic devices. Cryptography
is used for realizing high security, in the contact-less smart cards, which keep money and personal information, or sensor nodes, which handle privacy information.
Cryptography is mathematically safe, however, the attacker reveal secret information by analyzing the side-channel information such as power consumption and electro-magnetic field. Furthermore, the attacker could clone security LSIs by analyzing physical information. In our laboratory, we are researching tamper-resistant LSI which protect secret information, and Physically Unclonable Function for anti-cloning. In addition, we are developing networking and high security systems by using programmable LSIs and high-performance low-power processors.
At the analog integrated circuit laboratory we are promoting research that focuses on two points: information processing technology utilizing analog circuits and how the analog circuits are created. With regard to information processing technology we are researching information processing that utilizes complex dynamics such as in a neural network. We wish to realize the information processing doctrine of the brain on an analog circuit. For the problem of how the circuits should be created we aim at establishing automatic design technology carried out by computer. We wish to automate the design flow, which used to rely on the experience of the designer, using an optimization program on a computer. We are also carrying out research on simulation technology that cannot be easily realized using existing technology such as high-frequency circuits used in cell phones and a large-scale digital circuit mixed system.
VLSIs (very large scale integration), which have been so successfully used in information appliances, have now entered an era of more diversified applications such as on-vehicle and ultra-small medical use systems, and are therefore undergoing new development. In this era mastering the optimization of the system according to the application has the tendency to heighten its added value, and thus be a resource of large competitive power. In the case of medical treatment robots that can be used inside people's bodies, for example, ultralowpower operation is necessary. In the case of safety controlling vehicles and positioning the space shuttle, high-speed and ultra-high reliability are also required. This laboratory is working on low-power design technology at the system level and ultralow-power, including the battery and power supply circuit, in order to solve these requests of the era. As the reliability operation with the shift to LSI is also needed in addition to the aspect of the system, we are emphasizing the establishment of a design optimization method that takes into considering heat and timing with miniaturization physics.
Information processing systems with advanced intelligence technologies such as machine learning, as well as signal processing systems based on multimedia technologies, will contribute to a safe and secure society. In this laboratory, we conduct research on informatics technology that largely utilizes the power of software while still being based on hardware processing. Our research projects include a video processing system for a street- or storefront-mounted surveillance camera that provides a cognitive ability comparable to a human, making it possible to identify suspicious behavior; a non-invasive medical diagnosis system to process the inner body sound signals acquired with high-sensitivity microphones to detect signs of lifestyle diseases such as arteriosclerosis and heart disease in everyday life; and an image quality improvement system that uses computers to sharpen camera images degraded by darkness, backlight, mist, dust, and so on.
Thin organic film solar cells that can utilize solar light, an extremely valuable energy source for the Earth, are expected to be a low-cost original source of electrical energy which takes the environment into consideration are alternative to silicon solar cells. In recent years developments in thin organic film solar cells have been amazing, however, issues remain with the low efficiency of the conversion of light to electricity. We are attempting to solve this problem through various approaches that encompass electrical and electronic engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, which are all based on experiments carried out by young original talents. Understanding the properties of organic molecular materials is very important in being able to improve the performance of thin organic film solar cells, and hence molecular simulations are being carried out using computing machinery. Our mission is to consider organic molecular materials using the behavior of the electrons in it or to research its thermal and mechanical properties at the atomic or molecular level.
Integrated circuits (IC) that perform advanced information processing in PCs are composed of a large number of transistors that are a few dozen nanometers in size and control the transfer of electrical charge-bearing information. Single-electron transistors and other single-electron devices are ultimate devices that can control the motion of individual electrons with the smallest charge by means of their property of repelling each other. Single-electron devices can treat each electron as an information carrier and dramatically improve the degree of integration while reducing the power consumption of ICs. We are carrying out theoretical research on the behavior of multi-dot single-electron devices, each of which has a single-common-gate that can be easily fabricated.
Electronic information equipments, such as cell phones, vehicles, artificial satellites, etc., are implemented as complicated systems with hardware and software.
In the traditional sense, hardware (implies a rigid matter) is an electronic circuit which offers the best performance and software (implies a flexible matter) is a computer program whose functionality can be changed by re-loading another program. Our research theme concerns "reconfigurable hardware" which realizes both the high performance of electronic circuits and the flexibility of computer programs. Reconfigurable hardware would realize adaptive systems such as mobile phones, TV receivers, or wireless network appliances which could be reconfigured automatically to fit multiple standards. It would also realize evolutional hardware which would change autonomously according to the environment and usage. Furthermore, it would contribute to safety maintenance of the systems in dangerous place such as space, deep sea, nuclear facilities, by reconfiguring hardware for update or repair. It might also contribute to ecology by reconfiguring and re-using the system, i.e. reducing the waste.
Electrical energy is essential for our society, and it is expected the electrification in various areas (e.g. electric vehicles and electronic books) is extended in the future. Power electronics plays an important role to use the electrical energy effectively because it is deeply related to the generation, storage, supply and use. Our laboratory researches the power electronics applications for stability, high quality and high efficiency of power supply systems. The examples of the concrete subjects are as follows: 1. Study on dc distribution (or supply) system, 2. Study on power converters to make good use of next-generation power devices, 3. Study on power hardware-in-the-loop simulation for power supply systems. Through the researches, you can learn engineering technique such as circuit design and controller programing, and it promotes your deep understanding of power electronics and power system engineering.
Both the environment and energy are global-scale problems, and hence fuel cells using hydrogen, biomass, and the development of technology to prevent global warming are being promoted. These solutions all involve various types of gas, and active type image monitoring technology that uses the light which enables high-sensitivity of those gases without making any contact will therefore be important from the point of view of security. This laboratory has been researching mid-infrared optical devices in order to realize that. Mid-infrared is the wavelength band that is longer than 1.5 microns which is used in optical communications but there has yet to have been an effective light source, however, in recent years a semiconductor light source known as a quantum cascade laser has appeared. We are promoting research revealing the technical advantages of this at our laboratory. Any environmental information obtained usually needs to be sent to the necessary point as quickly as possible, and therefore we are also promoting research on semiconductor lasers, highly sensitive light detectors, technology for directly amplifying light in fiber, and optical circuits.
Power electronics are essential in critical quality-of-life technology used in air conditioners, laundry machines, fluorescent lamps etc in addition to various industries, electrical power itself, new energy sources such as solar cells and fuel cells, and battery powered cars and trains. Power electronics concerns technology used to convert and control electric energy and ensure efficient use of it, thus contributing to solving energy and environmental problems, and hence you will be assured of having a worthwhile career after entering the workforce. In more detail we are involved in the following activities. (1) Studying the basis of electronic circuits through fabrication tests of the I/O peripheral circuits of microcomputers and electronic circuits such as drive circuits. (2) Studying the basis of real-time control while creating control software in the C-language in order to control inverters and electric motors using DSP and RISC icrocomputers.(3) Studying the basis of control while establishing a system using the famous software of MATLAB and SIMULINK.
This laboratory involves research on microwave/millimeter wave integrated circuits and antenna that will be used in next-generation wireless communication. We are involved in the design, test production and evaluation of microwave/millimeter wave circuits with new functionality and a broadband conformal antenna for use in next-generation wireless communication based on electromagnetic field simulations and theoretical analysis. We are also involved in highly accurately evaluating the electrical and magnetic characteristics of a new microwave material that has various positive characteristics such as high-dielectrically constants and magnetic properties. We aim at the acquisition of raw power without bias through amassing theoretical, experimental and simulated experience. The laboratory promotes research with the cooperation of established foreign universities, with student interchanges being quite active, and hence you
can also acquire a richly cosmopolitan way of thinking.
In addition, in recent years, we have been developing electromagnetic wave absorption material as a control material to counter electromagnetic environment problems, which have been attracting social attention, in cooperation with companies. We are also carrying out research on the application of microwaves in medical care in cooperation with neighboring medical universities.
Wireless communications play important role not only for broadband data transmission but also for public safety. Our laboratory is making research on digital signal processing technologies for wireless communications with high quality and reliability in fast vehicle environment and in low received signal power environment. Using digital signal processing technologies in "Time", "Frequency" and "Space" domains, we focus on robust wireless communication systems for high-speed trains and airplanes at a speed of several hundredsof km's per hour and communication satellitesat a height of several ten thousands of km's. We are also making research on visualization technologies for wireless communications in order to support robust wireless communication systems. In addition, we are expanding these digital signal processing technologies not only to wireless communications but also to wired communications (optical communications, metallic communications) and acoustic sensing.
The positioning/navigation systems that use artificial satellites is known as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), with the GPS mounted in car navigation systems or cell phones being a representative example. Various applications and ways of processing electrical satellite waves are being considered with regard to the launch and operation of the quasi-zenith satellite system (satellites that reinforce GPS) in Japan and Galileo (European GPS) in Europe etc. This laboratory is concerned with research on a method of improving the accuracy of satellite positioning systems, acceleration, and the positioning algorithm used in the compound positioning system that combines gyro sensors etc. We are also considering upgrading of the information communication system for mobile objects and application in ITS (Intelligent Transport System) in our research.
Our laboratories deals with two research topics: one focuses on the signal analysis in atmospheric electricity and bioengineering fields, and the other focuses on bio-electromagnetic engineering related to the effect of transient electromagnetic waves on bio-systems.
Regarding the former research topic, we measure electromagnetic waves caused by lightning discharges whose occurrence rate is strongly related to global warming effects. The weather data sets are also used to assess the measured data and actual global warming effects. Regarding the atmospheric electricity, we also measure fluctuations of broadcasting waves, which can be effective data for forebodings of big earthquakes. In addition, we analyze the biological signals (e.g., EEG) for the health care management in our daily life.
Then, in the latter research topic, we evaluate effects of transient electromagnetic waves on bio-systems such as plants and yeast fungus. Artificial nerve-cell models are also used to analyze their responses by external electromagnetic waves. We believe that these new approaches will provide a new quantitative measures in revealing the actual effect of electromagnetic waves on bio-systems.
Energy crisis and environmental pollution is now serious global concern in 21st civilization life. Photovoltaics have gathered much attention as clean energy. Solar cell is semiconductor device which convert sunlight directly to electricity. In our laboratory, we are working on thin-film compound solar cells which have great potential on low-cost fabrication and high energy conversion efficiency. Our research covers broad spectrum of solar cell development, such as theoretical device design (modeling), thin film deposition, crystal growth, and device fabrication. Our main task is "proof-of-concept" for new material and new device structure; especially we are working on chalcogenide material and earth abundant semiconductors. Also, our activity includes flexible and light weight solar cells by new fabrication approach. To realize further popularization of PV, we are working on field test of PV modules and also promoting collaborations with companies and government.
Light is an electromagnetic wave, the same as a radio wave, however, the frequency is higher than that of a radio waveby three digits or more, and hence ultrafast measurements canbe made by creating a signal faster than that of a microwave. In the time domain, light signals at the time interval of a pico-second (1/1trillionth of a second)/femto-second (1/1000 trillionth of a second) are expected, and we are researching thecontrol of the light waveform. Also the expectation of a light signal at an interval of an atto-second (1/100 quadrillionth of a second) is increasing in recent years. These ultrahigh-speed signals have expanded the spectrum by a few terahertz or more, and their application in the fields of communication and measurement are therefore being studied. This laboratory aims at developing a new light source through shaping optical waveforms and optical frequencies, the generation of a broadband optical frequency comb through research that is based on optical modulation and laser oscillation control to manipulate light signals using electric signals.
Photonics/Quantum-Electronics is a research field that deals with interactions of electromagnetic waves and materials. The aim of our research is to create new devices and systems by
controlling the interactions of light and electrons. Our major research themes are nano-scale process technology, semiconductor lasers, imaging devices, and optical fiber communication
systems.In the research of the nano-scale process technology, we have developed room-temperature imprint lithography that allows us to copy fine patterns, which were formed on a mold,
to a surface of resin on a substrate, at room temperature.
In the research of the semiconductor lasers, we have proposed and theoretically analyzed a new ridge structure, which can emit a laser beam with the fundamental transverse mode up to a high light-output. In the research of the imaging devices, we have discovered a structure, which can control the peak wavelength and spectral width independently. In the research of the optical fiber communication systems, we have proposed and analyzed several schemes to reduce four-wave-mixing noises, which are caused by the third-order optical nonlinear effect in the optical fibers.
With typical memory data uses an address with input and output. However, memory that can have data input and output using a part of the data itself is known as association memory. You could say that association memory is the realization of the intellectual memory that forms the basis of human's intellectual functions. It is known that association memory LSI that can realizes that has various parallel processing functions in addition to the storage function. SSoC (Search System on Chip) is a system model that can use association memory as the key technology. We are analyzing and taking into consideration the target process to be realized by SSoC from the initial point and studying the algorithm and constitution method of SSoC so as to realize the processing in the most efficient manner. We will promote our research with the aim of realizing intellectual processing using video processing, network security and robot control etc as the main targets.
Optical fiber communication is one of the fields where optical technology has brought about great success. To further improve fiber communication technology and expand its applications, we are promoting investigations in three areas: (1) optical fiber communications, (2) infrared wireless communication and networks, (3) optical sensors. Although they have remarkably developed, optical fiber communications systems, which carry information merely with the blinking light, do not sufficiently utilize high-frequency wave properties of laser light. We are investigating advanced modulation-demodulation methods utilizing, for example, optical phase or frequency to discover the ideal situation of optical fiber communication at a higher speed and larger capacity. We are also studying indoor optical space communication that combines optical fiber communication technology and wireless communication technology. Optical sensing, especially, remote measurement or monitoring, with semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers and optical fibers, is studied as well.
Light has pressure. My laboratory is researching the control of minute objects without actually having to come in contact with them by using that pressure of light. We are currently developing a minute object light acquisition system using optical fiber and have confirmed that light acquisition of a few micrometers in size of a minute object can take place by irradiating the laser light from an optical fiber whose tip has been processed into a lens. This is known as "optical tweezers". The two optical fibers shown in the photo can be used to move objects closer to each other or to separate them similar to how a human's right and left hand handle objects. If the minute object were to be a cell it would contribute to the biotechnology field as a method of cell fusion and of replacing tissues in a cell.
Dynamical systems arising in various engineering problems in modern society are getting increasingly huge and complex, and exhibit a large-scale network structure consisting of a number of sub-systems. Examples of such systems are power grids, sensor networks, formations of mobile vehicles, etc. Mathematical model-based methodologies are essential to guarantee stability and high performance of large-scale networked control systems under various constraints. Against this background, we conduct research and education on systems and control engineering aiming at the development of practical and expansible methods for modeling, estimation, and control of largescale networked systems. Our research interests include robust design of networked control systems, synchronization of sensors or electro-mechanical systems, formation control of mobile vehicles, etc.
We humans obtain the energy we need from food such as rice, vegetables, and meat. Rice and vegetables however absorb solar light and accumulate energy while animals such as cows grow by eating herbage. Or basically humans also ultimately get their energy from the sun. In order to for humans to move around a lot of energy such as petroleum and electricity is also required in addition to food. Modern day people obtain energy by utilizing petroleum and nuclear power etc, however, this has caused environmental problems in addition to the problem of depletion, and hence research on switching our energy sources to sun-based energy is an important issue. We are attempting to solve this issue through developing high efficiency solar cells and researching a system that makes energy obtained in photovoltaic power generation easier to use.
The capacity of optical communication is being steadily increased, which brings significant benefits to our lives including broadband services of the Internet. However, the signal processing utilizing electronic circuits causes the limit of processing speed and large power consumption in the optical communication. The information photonics laboratory was just established in April 2012, where we aim at research on optical signal processing based on photonic nanotechnology, diffraction, interference, and non-linear optical effect in optical waveguides and fibers. We pursue technology that can process optical signals directly in the optical domain at high-speed and without increasing power consumption. The lightwave also has a feature that enables us to carry out sensitive detection of biological objects and environmental information without disturbing them. By use of this feature and above-mentioned optical signal processing technology developed for the optical communication, we pursue sensitive metrology for biotechnological, medical and environmental fields, and information photonics for multiplexing or fusion of optical sensors.
Our vision is to conduct leading-edge theoretical and applied research in design methodology for Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) and embedded systems. Embedded systems are computer systems, which are embedded in various electronic products such as digital TVs, blu-ray encoders/decoders, mobile phones, game machines, cars, and aircraft. SoCs are semiconductor chips on which multiple processors, memories, accelerators, and peripheral circuits are highly integrated, and are the key component in the embedded systems. Our current research focuses are on, but not limited to, high-level synthesis of SoCs and system-level design optimization of mobile phones and automotive control systems.
Nanotechnology and biotechnology. These disciplines have achieved remarkable progress independently, and now they collaborate to form a new interdisciplinary research area, namely, nanobiotechnology. We aim to contribute to advances in nanobiotechnology through our expertise in electronics. Our research interests include (a) nanoscale integrated CMOS devices and circuits for advanced sensors, (b) biosensors for biochemical molecules and physiological activities, (c) biochemical energy generation and storage. We stress international collaboration with research groups all over the world, and laboratory members are international as well. We enjoy exciting collaborations with experts from wide variety of disciplines not only physics but also chemistry, biology, and medical science. Interested? Then just contact me for more details!
Light is used in a wide variety of applications including communications, information processing, data storage, energy, healthcare, medicine, and manufacturing. The group engages in fundamental and applied study on photonics, focusing on nanophotonics and nonlinear optics with the aim to harness light. Our research involves optical device fabrication and advanced optical microscopy for minimally invasive medical diagnostics. The group is engaged in interdisciplinary areas of education and research, spanning optics, photonics and electronics.
Our research goal is to develop talented people who understand both hardware and software by constructing high-performance problem solving systems.
- Parallel Computing
- We have been researching into how to enhance the speed of large scale problems such as image compression, the n-body problem and hash functions using SMP clusters and FPGA boards. Currently we are parallelizing image generation such as real-time ray tracing using GPUs with massive parallelism.
- Hardware/Software Co-Design
- We have developed a hardware/software co-learning system in which students can study processor architecture and then design and implement their original processors. In addition, they can verify the behavior of the implementation using a FPGA board. Currently we are developing a multi-ALU processor (MAP) to evaluate operation level parallelism. The system includes MAP, a simulator, an assembler and a processor monitor/debugger.
Conventional material developments have emphasized ultrafinegrain refinement and homogenization. However, "nano- and homo-" materials do not usually satisfy the need to be both strong but ductile, which are of course rather contradictory characteristics.
Our research group has succeeded in creating a "Harmonic-Structure Material" that is both a "nano- and harmonic" material which has overcome that antinomy through the use of one of the non-equilibrium powder metallurgy (PM) processes called the severe plastic deformation PM process (Figure shows an EBSD grain size image of Ti-6Al-4V Harmonic Structure Material). Target materials are not only metallic materials but also hard materials such as ceramics.The harmonic structure design improves toughness as well. This also means that a whole new paradigm of materials design has been created. Alongside material development, we are also working towards practical application of the materials by carrying out demonstrative experiments, various assessments,and design optimizations.
The mechanical properties of various structural materials in the microscale and nanoscale domain are the research focus of the Ando Group. Microscale materials such as silicon, metals, and polymers are useful for micromachined applications in MEMS devices. We have developed a new method to evaluate the mechanical properties of silicon chips in various environments such as high or low temperature, high humidity, and vacuum.
Our research targets include the development of a novel MEMS device for evaluating various phenomena in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medical fields.
Dynamical system theory conveys striking and uncovering information for clarifying dynamic properties of irregular temporal behaviors obtained in a broad spectrum of experiments and numerical simulations in the fields of mechanical and chemical engineering. It widely covers from the quantification of many important invariants such as Lyapunov exponent, fractal dimension and entropies, which yields a physical description of the dynamical structure, to practical applications such as nonlinear forecasting. Our group is devoted to the experimental and numerical study on nonlinear dynamics of thermal fluids with rapid chemical reaction, especially combustion and flame (e.g., combustion instability in premixed gas-turbine combustor, flame front instability induced by radiative heat loss, and flame front instability in inverted gravity) from a viewpoint of dynamical system theory.
Soft Robotics Laboratory is investigating robots with novel functions brought by soft materials and its related technologies including soft sensors and actuators. So far, hard materials are mainly used in robotic systems. Contrary, creatures are made of hard and soft materials, suggesting us introducing soft materials into robotics will realize novel functions as creatures. Research topics are 1) soft-bodied robots including soft-fingered hands and tensegrity robots, 2) soft tactile sensors that can detect normal pressure, slippage, and proximity, 3) micro pneumatic valves and their applications to soft-bodied robots, 4) modeling of human tissue and organs such as vitreous and flatfoot, 5) handling of soft objects such as food and wires, and 6) aerial manipulation performed by hands equipped with multi-rotor robots.
We contribute to our society by creating humanoid (human-like) intelligent systems, focusing on high-performance motion control.
To obtain the better control, learning, prediction and monitoring performance, we integrate wide range of knowledge from control theory, dynamical system theory, machine learning algorithms and electro-hydraulic technologies.
Ongoing projects include hydraulic biped humanoid robots capable of fast and compliant full-body motions, pneumatic/electric hybrid exoskeletons capable of compliant motion assist, quadruped robots for tough field application, robotic excavator, and high-precision pneumatic/hydraulic servo press.
This laboratory is carrying out many fatigue tests under multiaxial loadings for various materials, such as heat and corrosion registrant alloys used for high temperature component, light weight alloys and super alloys used for aircraft, low melting alloys used for electronic devices, etc. The fatigue tests were mainly performed under multiaxial loading at room and high temperatures. Based on the obtained test results, deformation and fracture behaviors are evaluated. Observations of crack and microstructure, analyses and evaluations of results and numerical analyses are also carried out, and then evaluation of strength and development of design criteria for fatigue strength are studied. For the multiaxial fatigue test, since special test equipment is needed, almost all the machines are the originally designed and fabricated testing equipment. New testing machines are also developed. Thus, the students can study not only materials and strength of material, but also programing of test controlling and hydraulic control system. In this laboratory, most important thing is to enjoy the research work.
Our research focuses on the motion science of multi-joint structure common to both humans and robots, and its application. Due to multi-joint structure, the control of this motion becomes difficult. However, by developing innovative mechanisms and control systems, very efficient motion can be realized. In 2010, we are focusing on the following research projects:
(1) Realization of a Highly Energy-Efficient Robot based on Resonance Principles.
Theoretical and practical research is being carried out based on the resonance of mechanical stiffness devices. From a theoretical viewpoint, resonance for linear systems is developed to the nonlinear dynamics of robots.
(2) Development of a Human-size Underwater Robot with Dual Arms and its Testing in Biwa Lake.
We are focusing on the dexterity of an underwater robot with dual arms. A movable floating blocks system and a new type of controller for an operator have been developed. Experiments are conducted in both a pool on campus and in Biwa Lake.
(3) Realization of Muscular Structure
Robots and High Performance Control.
A muscular structure robot resembling a human body has been developed using rubber actuators. Robust visual feedback control systems are being developed.
Infrared sensors can detect objects in complete darkness. The sensors we are developing at our laboratory realize high sensitivity by floating and insulating a thin structure (1/1000 mm) in the air. The technology used to fabricate that structure is MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. We are carrying out research and development at the laboratory on process technology for fabricating a new infrared sensor device with new functionality and through various methods, and thus a variety of technologies can be studied in a wide range of fields that include electronic devices, electronic circuit technology, semiconductors/MEMS process technology, optical technology, and material technology. The applicable fields of infrared sensors also has a wide range and include safety, security and energy saving, and more recently have been used in vehicle safe driving auxiliary devices etc, and hence is technology we can expect more from in the future.
LSIs (integrated circuits) are incorporated computers and the computers are connected to networks, thus linking information, humans and objects. Small machines originating in LSI technology MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical (= machine) Systems, called MEMS) are now being spotlighted. My subject of research is MEMS and the world that can be treated using MEMS. MEMS involve an acquisitive field where mechanical and other information that includes biochemical information is dealt with utilizing the minute structure of the LSI chip. Applications have continued to expand: a number of small mirrors that turn ON/OFF the image signal of a display by swinging it, and biotips for catching cells, boring holes, and assembling cells etc. We are recently working on medical applications of MEMS with the aim of contributing to medical care that less burdens patients.
An endoscope robot with soft hands has been developed, and we would like to continue working on this field with you.
We are involved in the structural design and structural evaluations of the safety and functionality of rapid transportation such as vehicles and aircraft. The crash safety of vehicles and damage detection of aircraft etc are both representative examples of this theme. In particular we are carrying out research using the keyword of "impact phenomenon" and researching the impact resistance of new materials such as carbon fiber reinforced composite materials and shock absorbers that put a folding structure to practical use. We frequently carry out inspections using CAE (a type of computer simulation) in addition to various intensity experiments in our research, and develop test productions. Recently we have also been emphasizing damage diagnosis of architectural constructions and developing a system that can be used to evaluate the generation status of cracks in real time. We have a lot of themes of research that are being promoted in cooperation with car and aircraft manufacturers etc.
Nature systems behaving a body with a large number of degrees of freedom are often considered as the ultimate model for intelligence. To confer the performance advantage of animal systems on robotic machines, at this laboratory, we are carrying out the studies on a thorough understanding of the biological systems at both biomechanical and physiological levels and the developments of biomimetic intelligent machines, biologicallyinspired robots and environmentally adaptive mechanisms with the keywords, 'biological system', 'intelligence', 'environmental adaptation', 'flexibility' and 'energy-saving'. Our research topics include - but not limited to - studies and developments of new types of robots such as snake-like robots and quadruped robots that have a similar body with animals and show the correspondent intelligence, and studies and developments of rescue robots such as crawler-driven robots that behave polymorphic motions and show better impact absorption ability.
We are carrying out a variety of researches in five fields from a biomedical engineering stance; 1) We are developing new biological sensor technologies that include a sensor system for measuring depth of sleep (left photo) and indirect electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement technology through the clothes of a driver while driving. 2) We are carrying out an ultra-small and implantable digital bioinstrumentation system for directly measuring biosignals inside animal's bodies. We are also developing a nerve interface. 3) We are studying technologies for recovering, maintaining and improving our health by actively encouraging vital functions such as a virtual walking-around system (right photo) and blanket system to promise a good sleep that changes the temperature inside according to the depth of sleep. 4) We are studying the mechanism of fall and hip fracture of the elderly for the prevention of fall and hip fracture. Active collaborative research with companies is one of features of our laboratory.
Phenomenon where exceeds something can be represented by "1+1=2", or, that is to say, the situation where a new characteristic appears when two systems are combined, which could not be expected when each system individually existed, could be described as "emergence". The science that studies emergence is nonlinear science. The word "nonlinear contains the nuance "it is not a world where 1+1=2". At our laboratory research is being carried out the "emergence" new functions of a machine system by applying nonlinear science to machine systems, or by using a lot of parts and having them cooperate can lead to a mutual effect. For example, it is possible to rotate the same machine at a constant pace or to rotating it irregularly by slightly changing the operating conditions.
- 1) Rehabilitation robot (international collaborative research with the University of Reading in England)
- We are promoting the rehabilitation robot R4 used for the upper extremities that can be applied during rehabilitation in the acute stage after having suffered apoplexia cerebri in an intercultural exchange with researchers from the University of Reading in England where some of my graduate students and I visit.
- 2) Medical robot (collaborative research with Shiga University of Medical Science)
- In order to realize a master-slave robot that can support surgery under MRIs etc we are working on research regarding a motion transfer mechanism that does not get affected by magnetic fields.
- 3) Assist robot
- We are promoting the design of a mechanism for an assist robot for support in preventing lower back pain, the design of a control system and research on a distributed force sensor.
- 4) Ultrahigh acceleration robot
- We are working on research on the ultrahigh acceleration parallel mechanism NINJA with the aim of realizing 100G and a parallel mechanism that can accelerate equipment on which electronic components are mounted.
We carry out research into medical robots, highly-functional small medical equipment, and rehabilitation equipment in order to improve the quality of our daily lives.
- [Capsule-Robots for diagnostic treatment]
- We design and develop Capsule-Robots that can carry out inspections and provide medical care in the body cavity for a long time. Capsule-Robots move along the surface of internal organs driven by external magnetic fields. We research mechanisms that enable correct positioning in soft internal organs, a diagnosis function, a medical treatment function. We also develop a system that generates a magnetic field for the robots' movement in the body, and analyze the behavior of the Robots by use of movement simulation.
- [Tool for minimally invasive medical treatment]
- We develop tools for use in surgically treating internal organ with minimal damage. We design and fabricate a vascular catheter that includes micro forceps of 1mm in external diameter and a multi-functional endoscopic instrument for laparoscope assisted surgery. Our medical tools have multidegrees of freedom and rigidity required in surgery even though very small size.
With the advances in computer technology and development of computational codes for fluid dynamics, solving complex equations has become mainstream. However, there is room for improvement in computational accuracy and time. For example, simulation of combustion in turbulent flows needs to solve hundreds of chemical equations simultaneously, which leads to a huge computational load. Therefore, efficient computational methods are required. In our laboratory, we are developing efficient computational codes for analyzing flow around fixed physical objects (Eulerien method) and as well as flow around moving physical objects (Lagrangian method).
In addition to the development of efficient computational codes, we are working on application of these codes to technological studies such as “noise-reduction of turbulent flow from jet nozzle,” “development of micro gas turbine,” “development of artificial heart with magnetically suspended impeller,” and “flow analysis of moving animals as swimming fishes and flying birds.”
The main interests of the manipulation laboratory are to design controllers of robotic hands and arms to enable dexterous motion such as grasping and reaching, and to develop robotic systems such as tendon-driven mechanisms. The tendon-driven mechanism is one of the technologies used in robotic transmission systems to drive a linkage mechanism with the use of wires, and is often used to perform features of the musculoskeletal system. We are currently analyzing tendon-driven mechanisms to understand the important characteristics of musculoskeletal systems, such as variable stiffness properties and the connected motion shown at the interphalangeal joints of the index finger. We are also developing other mechanical systems such as a new mass measurement system, an ankle-foot orthotic system, and a tele-operation system.
This laboratory is involved in researching and developing a damage evaluation method and a strength evaluation method with regard to the multiaxial loading status of a wide range of high-temperature materials such as single-crystal superalloys that are used in aircraft and gas turbine blades for electric generation and heat-resistant steel used in electric generation boilersetc. There is no commercially-available equipment that can be used in these tests and hence it basically all needs to be originally designed and fabricated. The test equipment we have developed includes inventive equipment without precedent in the world and research products of high originality.
Improving the thermal reliability of the equipment is necessary because of the tendency towards high integration and the high heat generation of electronic devices used in cell phones and PCs etc. We are carrying out research on improving the reliability of cell phones and PCs through the research regarding the evaluation of the material characteristics of solder, resin and thin copper film materials used in that equipment.
We are studying intelligent sensing systems for autonomous and adaptive robotic systems. Our research topics include an intelligent vision sensor with a design inspired by the biological vision system (neuromorphic vision sensor), a real-time robotic vision system with VLSI technology, and a device for integration of sensory information obtained from different types of sensors (sensor fusion). In addition, we are applying the vision-based sensing systems to robotic controls, such as mobile robot navigation and target tracking with active vision.
We are carrying out research and development on wireless/optical components utilizing Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. As the dimensions of the machine's element can be miniaturized to the same level of electromagnetic waves, the possibility that a new doctrine for controlling the phase and amplitude of electromagnetic waves with those machine elements is emerging. The expectation is that this research will lead to the development of a new research area which will initiate the fusion of electromagnetic waves and machine vibrations in the micro area. It is also expected that this research will realize even higher functionality of mobile wireless communications and sensing system and contribute to the construction of the infrastructure for the next-generation ubiquitous network society.
We utilize various industrial products around us, many of those parts are produced in removal process using machining tools. The tools gradually wear out and need to be replaced. Only the surface layer of a tool is used in processing, and hence replacing the entire tool is a waste of resources. Attachments can change with each replacement that can cause variation in the accuracy of processing. This laboratory is therefore working on the development of technology for reforming machining tools on the machine tool. The technology will help workers involved in processing to select the optimal tool, and improve their ingenuity. We are developing support technology and equipment at our laboratory to aid processing engineers in fabricating machining tools with a simple shape in addition to this research.
We are developing assistive technologies (AT) for use by persons with disabilities and the elderly and doing basic research. We are proud that our laboratory has the most different commercially- available AT found in science and engineering laboratories in Japan and students commence learning from first experiencing the superior points and problems of AT by using and comparing them as research that does not include any handson experience frequently becomes merely paper theory. This laboratory is a part of the robotics department; however, we aim at developing useful equipment, even if it is rather low-tech and regardless of high-tech mechatronics equipment. The themes of research includes the development of a safety mechanism for rehabilitation robots, the development of a more comfortable cushion for a wheelchair, basic research on amusement equipment for the elderly, and the development of an earring type input device for tetraplegics etc.
Rhythmic phenomena, characterized as regular recurrence of pattern in time, are observed in a variety of systems in nature. Examples include rhythms in speech communications, rhythms in music plays, rhythmic walking, rhythmic heart beat, 24 hours biological rhythm, rhythmic flashing of fireflies, firing patterns of neuronal activities, planetary motion, and many others. Ensemble of such rhythmic elements leads to a rich collective behavior such as synchronization. In mechanical engineering, development of mechanical oscillators that can generate stable and precise rhythms provides one of the most fundamental technologies. In our laboratory, we construct mathematical models and experimental devices for rhythmic systems. Our aim is to develop basic theories and advanced applications in science and engineering. Our subjects cover a broad range of research fields from mechanics, robotics, computer science, neuroscience, and circadian rhythm to acoustics and music.
We are aiming at the realization of a micro power source of an ultra-small turbo machine etc. by putting micro machine system technology to practical use. The micro power source has been assumed to be a propulsion engine loaded on an ultra-small flying object. We are implementing element design and test production of centrifugal compressor, a can type premixing hydrogen combustor, a radial flow turbine and gas bearing etc configured with an impeller diffuser based on the thermodynamic cycle required for the propulsion engine. We are also implementing structural fluid design by dealing with the centrifugal force, thermal stress and heat conduction problems from the point of view of solid mechanics and the transonic fluid problem of the low Reynolds number from the point of view of aeromechanics. We are also aiming at resolving the electronic/dynamic behavior of piezoresistant material in which the application of a micro mechanical rate sensor like an acceleration sensor is expected, by applying micro mechanics to it.
It is very important to produce reliable industrial products, including MEMS products. One effective method for preventing product failure is the early detection of small-scale damage or fracture. In our laboratory, we study an advanced fracture controlling technique for application in early fracture detection.
Another field of study we have recently embarked on is the study of practical uses of fuel-cell vehicles, as part of the effort in addressing the issues of global warming and resource shortages.
Magnetic levitation/magnetic bearings are used in systems that support objects or rotating shaft without contact through use of magnetic force. It has various favorable characteristics: no friction or abrasions, supports high-speed rotation, low loss, long lifetime, usable in vacuums or in ultralow temperature environments, and supports advanced active control. Currently it is actually being utilized in magnetic suspension trains, turbomolecular pumps, flywheel energy storages, clean pumps, and blood pumps for artificial hearts etc. We are working at the development of a magnetic bearing smaller than those already existing, the development of a self-bearing motor that integrates magnetic bearings and an AC motor, and the development of a non-contact displacement sensor for use in magnetic levitation etc. We are also developing a magnetic bearing system using a superconductor in addition to the magnetic suspension that uses a normal conduction magnet.
The high-speed impact accompanying the shock waves is a very interesting research subject in physics because unique phenomena that can never happen under the static and dynamic loading are induced. The main subject is the clarification of fracture and propagation behavior of waves induced by the impact. In particular, we recently focus on the high-speed penetration phenomenon into geological particulate materials such as sands. Since particles are heterogeneity and instability, both behaviors as solid and liquid exist and the three states of matter (solids, liquids and gases) are mixed, phenomena are so complicated and less understood. This is not only basic research of high-speed impact phenomena but research of engineering significance, such as the product development using a non-Newtonian phenomenon, the establishment of planetary exploration technology, the establishment of protection technology against highspeed scattering objects and the development of new excavation technology and geological survey technique.
We are clarifying the mechanism of vital functions using the material mechanics required in designing vehicles and aircraft that avoid damage in mechanical engineering. In addition we are aiming at developing new medical treatments for disorders that have been untreatable using the accomplishments obtained. We mainly carry out research on tendons and ligaments of the articulatio genus.
Tendons and ligaments are made up of collagen fibers and have a very complicated structure. We are researching the relationship between minute structures and mechanical properties by harvesting fiber fascicles of approximately 100 micrometers in diameter and very fine fibrils of approximately 200 nanometers in diameter obtained the tail tendon of the mouse for use in conducting tensile tests. We also obtain mechanical properties from the relationship between force and extension at that time by capturing the change in shape of the patella tendon that bears the load using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment in order to measure the mechanical properties of the patella tendon in the human articulatio genus.
Prevention of global warming is currently a pressing issue, making the establishment of a system that ensures a constant supply of energy while reducing CO2 emissions necessary, along with the promotion of energy saving, recycling of resources and the conversion to new fuels. Because of this we are developing highly efficient technology for use in gasoline engines and purification technology for harmful substances from the point of view of energy conservation, because diesel engines have higher thermal efficiency than gasoline engines but do have the tendency to discharge a lot of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle matter (PM) such as smut. We are also developing technology for utilizing biomass resources and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) as a new fuel.
The environment has recently been damaged by human activity. In our laboratory, we study two technologies: environment restoration technology and the technology for the reduction of environmental impact, by means of fluid engineering. Our main focus is to develop such technologies by using a large quantity of micro scale bubbles. This technology makes it possible to efficiently dissolve oxygen in water in the environment on a massive scale. Dissolved oxygen restores the ecological systems and material cycle systems, providing the water environment strong environment-restoration ability. Our field experiments are carried out at testing sites such as lakes and water-storage dams, in cooperation with the local government authority. To support and verify our fieldwork, we perform experiments in our laboratory on campus, which attempt to predict the process of water environment restoration by simulating heat, fluid flow, diffusion, and chemical reaction in the environment.
With the environment you cannot just say "Clear up the water!" or "Recycle waste!" Because humans do live on the earth the water has become polluted and waste discharged. The important thing is to think about maintaining a good balance. An important concept here is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) that can be used to evaluate various problems with consideration given to the whole life cycle (or from the cradle to the grave). Global environment problems are especially complicated and you are damned if you do and damned if you don't. This environmental system laboratory is a "convenience store for environmental problems" that promotes research using the abovementioned LCA method. Characteristic of it is that we are carrying out research in accordance to the demands of society by importing all the possible academic fields that could be necessary, regardless of specific expertise.
We are carrying out research on the design of architecture and cities/city blocks that can coexist with the environment, clarifying humans comfort/physiological phenomenon, and the establishment of a low-carbon society.
- (1) Human-clarification of comfort/physiological phenomenon:
- We clarify the comfort and physiological phenomenon people experience through architecture and various spaces in cities in studying the architecture and urban spaces people feel comfortable with.
- (2) Architecture-energy saving efforts:
- We are promoting the development of next-generation air-conditioning/heat source systems that balance energy saving with comfort and an eco-campus in addition to making suggestions on and evaluating new merchant houses in Kyoto utilizing traditional knowledge and environmental coexistence type architecture.
- (3) City-safe city blocks/city designs that take the environment into consideration:
- We are evaluating and researching urban greening and city block designs that lead to control of the heat island affect.
- (4) Earth-aiming at a low-carbon society:
- We are aiming at the realization of being a low-carbon society by establishing a model that incorporates traffic and transportation in addition to architecture and cities.
At this laboratory we are researching (1) ground disaster-prevention engineering, (2) geomechatronics, and (3) environmental geotechnical engineering. With (1) we are handling research on ground disasters (slope disasters in particular) to prevent disasters from destroying our cultural heritage as a member of COE or G-COE. We are also working on a wireless slope disaster prevention system in cooperation with information system and sensor system researchers. We are planning to work at helping to conserve the world heritage sites in Viet Nam in the future. With (2) we are carrying out research on the mutual action of machine systems and the ground in a resource development on the moon in cooperation with researchers from JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) etc. Geomechatronics is the name of a research field that concerns the automation and robotization of operating machines for the ground. With (3) we are carrying out research on the spreading of ground pollution due to heavy metals and oil and a method of controlling it.
Measurement techniques to evaluate air quality and odors, especially using human sense of smell, is studied. In Japan, the use of "olfactory measurement" to assess malodors has been established by legislation, and the purpose of this study is to find the way of its application to comprehensive evaluations of air quality in the environment.
And, a biological treatment system is being developed for use in removing gaseous organic compounds (VOCs or Volatile Organic Compounds), which are major air pollutants currently, and odorants. This equipment is generally known as "biological deodorization" or "biofiltration," and our research is focusing on high efficiency of pollutants removal and on fine control of microbial activity and biomass growth to achieve its practical use.
The concept and academic field of a "design process" exists with architecture and product design. It is a concept that evolved in the US and Germany in the 1960s, with researches on it having been carried out in the fields of industrial and architecture design.
Design cannot not promoted without a plan and is generally implemented with targets: (1) efficient allocation of time, (2) generation of ingenious ideas, (3) smooth formation of agreement with client/transmission of the intent of the design, (4) expressive presentation etc according to the plan. Performance can be improved by intentionally following these processes toward a specific result. From the methodology given above we focus on the expression technique such as in making sketches and invocation via the means of the imagination that are evolving in the planning field etc and carrying out research on verifying the efficiency of the processes using actual projects and competitions.
Domain of architectural profession has been constantly changing. Reflecting this situation, architectural design education has also been changing. These changes both in the domain of practice and education are accelerated recently, and some architects are expanding their domain of practice through their projects while some architectural schools are exploring new possibility and role of architect and experimenting it through the educational projects. The interest and the mission of this laboratory reside in this changing situation of architectural profession and architectural education. This laboratory aims to conduct research of different education system both domestically and internationally, and also to establish and manage experimental education program through various exchange program with the domain of practice and also with other technological domains.
Lake Biwa, for example, has a vast water catchment area with 100 or more large and small rivers flowing into it, thus making comprehension of the contaminant outflow and outflow characteristics of the water catchment area necessary in formulating appropriate water management policy to conserve water quality and carrying out concrete facility developments to controlling the outflow load of contaminants. We are therefore clarifying the existing characteristics of contaminants, their behavior characterization that includes generation, accumulation and outflow, and the mechanism of pollution, and working at making inspections and suggestions of appropriate water management policy using policy simulations and an environmental management model. Some concrete research themes are given below.
- Dynamics analysis of contaminating substances/small amounts of harmful substances in urban or agricultural land
- Existing evaluations of urban activity-derived air-pollution substances
- Ecological risk evaluations of small amounts of harmful substance that exist in the environment
- Development of a contaminant outflow management support system for the water catchment area of Lake Biwa and evaluation of its availability
- Water quality formation process for Lake Biwa and its model
The critical responsibilities of the engineering discipline in helping to ensure the safety of people and society have much in common with the role played by medicine in protecting and preserving human life. Our laboratory promotes research aimed at protecting people, communities and their cultural assets against the effects of earthquakes and other natural disasters.
Destruction of one or more bridges can significantly compro mise logistic operations, not only having a major impact on daily living activities but also delaying resumption of pre-disaster conditions. We conduct experiments and numerical analysis in response to the need to ensure design and construction of safe, robust bridges with designed-in resistance to seismic vibrations and to tsunami forces in the case of coastal areas.
Running water is essential in our lives as we are use it for cooking, doing the laundry, bathing, and for drinking.
However, it has recently been discovered that a disease organism called cryptosporidium could be threatening the safety of water. Cryptosporidium gets discharged from infected warmblooded animals to survive and propagate in another warmblooded animal within a shell that is immune to disinfectant like chlorine.
Something that cryptosporidium is not immune to though is water being irradiated with ultraviolet light. However, if the amount of ultraviolet light is too small the disinfection process can be insufficient, but if too much is used the equipment or operation can be uneconomical. We are carrying out various inspections for use in the appropriate design and operation of ultraviolet disinfection.
In a design process and the construction process of the building, we perform the original actions that are specialized in each. And we continue working hard to adapt to the demand of the times enough. I contribute to the society by building the convenient facilities and unprecedented huge space. Lately, we do not only construct new buildings. The preservation of an old building, the creation of the longlived building and the consideration to natural environments become important. My present studies relate to the communication and management in the construction. For example, the research and development on method of the earthquake reinforcement including seismic Isolation retrofit. The maintenance by the dry crazing control technology of concrete structures. The development of relays such as a carbon fiber rod using the thermoplastic resin or the high-strength fiber composition laminated lumber. Application of information and communication technology in the quality control of the ground improvement body using electric ratio resistance investigation.
The purpose of our laboratory is to provide design methodologies for architecture that are based on human senses and behavior. For many designers it is difficult to explain these ideas clearly. Even though there are already many basic, established theories on architectural planning and design, the conceptualization of a design is primarily based on one's personal sense and knowledge base without obvious evidence. In response to this, our laboratory is trying to incorporate the modeling of human feelings, eye motion and brain activities into design methods for the solution of such problems. We are also working on practical architectural projects and international competitions as another avenue towards developing methodologies for the design of new architecture.
We aim to contribute to the welfare of human society by promoting recognition of aquatic pollution, clarification of its cause and mechanism, and basic/applied research on technology for purification and mitigation.
- Lake Biwa group: This group is researching the behavior of phosphorus that flows into the lake from the drainage basin by measuring the phosphorus, which then enables biological utilization that causes eutrophication of the lake. They are also involved in a collaborative investigation with Shiga Prefecture and research on Lake Biwa and its lagoons.
- Arsenic group: This group is clarifying the mechanism of arsenic polluting groundwater and researching a sustainable water supply system in cooperation with a university and NGO in Bangladesh. They are also measuring the amounts of coli phage etc in water for use as a hygiene index. They also carry out field investigations.
- Water reclamation group: This group is researching advanced processing technology for wastewater reclamation and reuse. Membrane bioreactor is investigated for decrease of its membrane fouling risk.
At the bridge engineering laboratory we mainly carry out research on the design of steel bridges and their maintenance. For use as data needed to design steel bridges economically we are clarifying the strength of members through experiments and analyses. Through experimental tests, it is possible for us to see and feel the strength of steel members and to get to know a bit about the strength of the structures our lives depend on. Many structures around us have been in public use for long time and some of those have some structural damages. Hence we are researching a method of safely using them for longer through maintenance and strengthening. As one possible method, we are studying the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. CFRP is light but has much strength and rigidity than steel material, and it has begun to attract attention as an effective material for strengthening and maintenance use in the future.
We are carrying out research on urban transport that encompasses the movement of people in cities along with the movement of bicycles and vehicles on roads. In order to ease traffic congestion in cities and thus traffic jams and accidents the behavior of people moving in cities and the behavior of people driving cars need to be analyzed, and appropriate traffic management policies and road safety practices then considered.
Travel behavior such as with work trips, commuting to school and shopping is implemented by everyone on a daily basis, and thus is a field that involves behavior in everyday life, and therefore a target of research that can take place anywhere in people's daily lives.
We are developing theories for use in objectively describing, analyzing and evaluating the characteristics of spatial forms and structures in built environments such as cities and buildings from the point of view of morphology and geometry. We are also researching methods of applying it in actual urban planning and architectural design. The research themes we are currently working on are given below.
- Architecture/urban space analysis: We are attempting to portray the spatial characteristics of buildings, urban facility allocation, land use, urban landscape, the flows of people and cars, and visible areas etc.
- Research and analysis on traditional dwellings and cities of the world: We are carrying out field investigations on the dwellings inherent to regions in comparing the correspondence between natural and social environment conditions and mutual spatial composition and positively researching the characteristics of dwelling culture.
- Practice of spatial planning: We are continuing to design houses, schools and commercial buildings, and with our involvement in a reorganization project of urban space.
It is anticipated that due to depopulation and global environmental issues cities will shrink instead of expanding continuously. In this context, the modern city planning methodologies need to be reviewed to reflect the current status of urbanization, which can therefore contribute to creating rich, dynamic,and sustainable cities.
Our study focuses on the techniques for measuring the shrinking cities and the maintenance technologies in the advanced urbanized societies and advice on how to achieve sustainable cities, which can take advantage of the regional characteristics. We conduct research on the city systems, regional planning, and management systems of the cities that fully utilize participation and consultation offered by diversified bodies, including national and local governments, citizens, and NPOs. We also carry on comparative research on European cities and especially refer to the French cities.
We are conducting research on the following topics:
- Creation of a new sounding body made with a cement-based hardened body, which is in harmony with environmental education
- Development of manufacturing technology for new string and wind instruments using a high-performance cement-based hardened body. (An alpenhorn and pipe organ made of concrete won the prizes at the 2008 and 2009 handcrafted instrument contest in Japan.)
- Quantitative evaluation of the healing effect of the new sounding body on humans: evaluation of the healing effect of the music generated using a cement-based hardened body instrument through organoleptic assessment (holding concerts etc.).
- Promoting the reproduction of folk houses, taking into consideration the regional characteristics, comfort and earthquake protection.
- Investigation of the historical and cultural value of folk houses constructed using traditional Japanese construction materials and technology, evaluation and analysis of natural energy utilization by folk houses.
- Resolving environmental problems using multi-hole cement-based hardened bodies (porous concrete).
- Plantimal and water-purification utilizing porous concrete: suggestion of a plantimal construction method that utilizes natural power.
- Development of concrete for early open type pavement
- Developing early open type concrete pavement technology where large parts of the material can be covered with domestic limestone, and estimating their life cycle, cost, and life cycle assessment.
The aim of our research is to design safe and beautiful cities and regions in a composite study field, which incorporates the saving of cultural heritage and disaster mitigation planning for cities, two areas that have traditionally been implemented separately. In particular, we are carrying out planning research for the revitalization and disaster-mitigation of historic areas related to the global COE "promotion based on ‘study of cultural heritage disaster mitigation' for protecting historic cities."
We are also committed to making a contribution to society in the creation of beautiful environments with abundant water that can be utilized even in case of earthquake triggered fires. This includes the creation of regional disaster prevention plans for historical cityscapes with the participation of the local inhabitants, the discovery of traditional knowledge of reducing disasters in history, and effective evaluation of modern society. We are also involved in the disaster-mitigation water use development plan for the flammable and historical region around Kiyomizu-dera Temple, which is being put into practice by Kyoto-city. Through these projects in Japan and overseas, we are taking part in business solution type research for making an disaster mitigation plans and evaluations by inhabitants and the government for sustainable social services.
We are carrying out fieldwork in cooperation with the inhabitants, companies, and elementary school students etc around our university in rediscovering the attractive resources that are inherent to the region and proposing the creation of environmental towns and landscapes etc. As one method we are trying to make presentations to the general public so that they can comprehend the future image of their region easier by combining and registering photos, videos, animation and audio etc on computerized maps and creating the content mixed with media. More concretely we are reproducing the past landscape of the town using old maps or photos and the current landscape with three-dimensional graphics and displaying the landscape of a sustainable society for the future in three dimensions using those characteristics. We are also proposing circulative composite space utilization as a supply center of food and energy, conservation of national land such as through recharging water sources, conservation of life's diversity, the economic base of regions, and fields for recreational activities in the countryside and mountains near towns that have various values.
There are serious water resource problems in the world. With forecasts of global warming and climate change intensifying in the future, safe and steady water supply will become more difficult for people and industries. It is therefore necessary to propose effective management techniques in our country that rely on the import of food and energy resources. In our laboratory, field investigation from lake Biwa and the Aso basin and experimental measurement of pollution loads are carried out. Moreover, an Integrated Simulation Model of atmosphere-soil-watersediment has been developed. We use information technology, such as the latest global information obtained from GIS and satellites RS as an applicable method all over the world. Problem structures of water resource are comparatively analyzed in various regions. Additionally, by considering the limitation and environmental capacity in each region, new environmental policies are designed and evaluated quantitatively. Our final goal is to suggest more sustainable water resource management techniques.
Rivers are not just for channeling precipitation (rain and snow) down to the mouths of rivers but also for the cycle of various substances. Landslides carried by the flow of a river have generated changes in landforms and created various natural environments through the organic substances that form in mountainous areas and forests. However, people have evolved using the sustenance of rivers since early times and have changed river basins according to their wishes while being occasionally faced by disasters such as floods and sediment disasters. In recent years catchphrases such as protection and conservation of the natural environment have become in vogue and the opinion that the approach to rivers by humans should be controlled as much as possible is growing stronger. At this laboratory we are researching the outflow phenomenon of water and landslides in river basins and how it can change the form of the land. We are also researching a method sophisticatedly balancing human society with the river environments by confirming the effect of such phenomenon on ecological systems and past river development transitions etc.
Transportation systems are one of the most essential infrastructures for our social activities and daily life. However, in densely populated area, traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic accidents and delayed public transportation annoy our daily life, while, in rural area, city area has been widely spreading due to motorization and the city center has been empty. It causes our society to decline sustainability, livability, and eco-friendliness. Our mission is to come up with smart and optimal transportation systems with “intelligence” and to achieve livable society. The fundamental research consists of the following three steps; i) getting better knowledge about the nature of transportation network dynamics, ii) developing methods to acquire these in sights, and iii) using this knowledge to come up with innovative traffic management approaches. The current research topics cover the following area: modeling traffic flow and driving behavior, developing traffic data collection technique and active traffic management systems, and analyzing traffic safety and travel behavior.
Landscape Architecture involves the planning and design of outdoor spaces, and include small scale spaces such as gardens and large scale spaces such as green areas in parks and street landscape etc. Differing to architecture plants are important material in those plans and design, and particularly in the case of large-scale outdoor spaces, it is frequently accompanied by public use. In modern society the system of belonging to a community, which is deeply rooted in a place, being lost because of the effect of urbanization and environmental problems etc. can be seen, and what is more there is no such system of voluntary green space management such as that in agricultural societies. Because of this we are researching how public outdoor spaces that everybody can feel to be their own space should be planned, with maintenance and management being important issues. Also, we are actively participating in design contests as a laboratory as a practical concrete design planning activity.
We are carrying out research on the development of technology for use in the field of construction, centering on civil engineering works, and in the field of architecture, and are working at the utilization of these research accomplishments in other fields such as agriculture. More concretely, we are developing intelligent construction technology for implementing sophisticated, but flexible construction and management according to the relevant field conditions. We are doing this by introducing the latest information and communication technology into construction practices, minimizing the energy and resources needed for the construction work, by developing technology for use in constructing cavities such as tunnels under the ground instantaneously using impact waves, by researching ways to predict the subsidence due to the ground failure of family homes and how to prevent it from taking place, by suggesting environmentally friendly plant factories that make maximum use of solar energy, and by researching the utilization of management methods applied in the field of construction for agriculture and food supply, etc. In addition, we are creating academic material in order to introduce the amusingness of science courses to elementary, junior high, and high school students using topics from the field of construction starting this year.
We study and analyze issues regarding traffic and are researching the planning and management of urban traffic systems with the aim of constructing better urban traffic systems. In recent years, we have particularly focused on the realization of cities in which people benefit from walking, and promoting walking-related research such as traffic behavior analysis to model their behavior and then planning pedestrian spaces around it. However, research on pedestrians is insufficient in creating cities that you can happily walk around; making a traffic system that will support it is necessary. We are therefore studying issues, including rationalization of local logistics focused on parking, parking behavior analysis and parking management, inspections of traffic management policies for realizing traffic spaces such as transit malls, and improvement of public transport. We are also carrying out research on disaster mitigation for cultural heritages, and evacuation planning in emergencies in addition to transport planning in normal situations. In addition, "towns for walking" require regional identities, and hence we are carrying out research that includes the aspect of traffic culture.
Recently flooding damage due to hurricanes (typhoons) has been increasing due to changes in the global environment. Hence river engineering, especially forecasting of flooding and sediment disasters, have been growing in importance. In the fluid mechanics laboratory, we perform research on turbulent flow in rivers, and on the basic processes of sand particle motion on river beds.
The "bedforms" on a river-bed (for example the "sand wave" known as a "dune") is formed by erosion and deposition of particles by flowing water. Dunes are important, because they can block the flow of floodwaters, causing the river to overflow its banks. To better understand how dunes form, we are developing a computer simulation of erosion and deposition at a riverbed. The method is similar to the computer simulations of the airflow in the atmosphere that are used in weather forecasts. We are also developing advanced measurement technology to check the simulations.
The structural design is not only related to the external form or internal space of buildings but also connected directly with the safety to various turbulences such as the winds or earthquakes,
usabilities, and the construction costs.
Especially, the necessity ofadequate evaluation of the aseismic capacity for the built structure has risen caused by receiving the influence of the large earthquakes that happen frequently in recent years.
In our laboratory, the technique based on the structural mechanics principle is researched in order to support a logical structural design that appropriately considers such various actual conditions.
Logical structural design methods are proposed based on optimization of cost minimization or performance miximization considering various phase of structural design such as determination of the shape of building structure and the size of each material, or designing aseismatic and the vibration control system. Moreover, to evaluatethe aseismic capacity of actual buildings, it researches concerning the system identification approach that clarifies the performance of structure based on the vibration measurement in the building.
My interest lies in probability theory, financial mathematics and the various fields that are related to them. This involves various subjects that include abstract mathematics as well as its appli-cations; stochastic differential equation on topological groups, quadratic Wiener functionals and infinite dimensional Lie alge-bras, the pricing of financial derivatives, sustainable economic growth problems, and so on. These research projects also in-volve a number of postgraduate students. International ex-changes take active place with guests frequently visiting my laboratory from all over the world, from whom we can all learn a lot. The number of foreign students at our laboratory is also in-creasing while some of our students occasionally get sent to foreign universities. We also frequently have the opportunity to travel overseas to attend academic society meetings. Gradu-ates from our laboratory often enter professions in the banking industry
As we live in a three-dimensional world the idea of “four-dimensions” can be quite challenging but it is considered quite routine in mathematics, with well developed arguments for it in place. However, contrarily enough five-dimension or six-dimension worlds appear to have been taken for granted.My interest is in the “infinite dimensional” world that could be considered to exist at the beyond of “finite-dimensional” worlds where phenomena considered impossible in a finite-dimensional world could occur. The subject of “operator algebras” can be considered something that “acts” on this marvelous world. The study of this is classified as “analysis”; however, it is also closely related to algebra and geometry. In the real world quantum mechanics and knot theory etc are also related to it.This field is comparatively new in mathematics and has a lot of unknown problems, thus making it a challenging research
Earthquakes are awful phenomena that may cause terrible damage to our infrastructures. On the other hand, however, plain fields and basins have been formed owing to faulting associated with earthquakes. Also, active faults provide us ground water. Beautiful nature in Japan has been partly made by activities of the earth such as earthquakes. Since we are living in Japan, where a lot of large earthquakes occur, we must survive earthquakes in exchange for great natural benefits. Then, it is essential to understand earthquakes and active faults.
When, where, how large and how do earthquakes occur? Are the earthquake sizes determined in advance? How do rocks in the earth behave when seismic waves pass through? In our laboratory, we are approaching to such fundamental problems on earthquake physics and seismic wave propagation by means of laboratory experiments, field observations and seismic waveform analyses.
Wireless sensing network systems is the key technology in advanced measurements in a wide range of fields, for measurement of multiple parameters, and under dangerous or destructive conditions. The system is designed as a remote, collaborative, cooperative system consisting of multiple sensors and measuring instruments, and communication devices. The aim of the sensing system laboratory is (1) to construct an autonomous sensing node, which integrates sensors, a micro-processor system and a communication device and (2) to realize a flexible, robust and dual communication sensing network. As concrete applications, the laboratory staff have been working on (1) forecasting landslides at hills around mountain areas, (2) monitoring the flow speed and direction of dangerous rivers, (3) monitoring the dynamical physiological parameters in daily life and (4) monitoring human flow in densely populated areas. From the viewpoint of social evolution, our staff work to design and construct practical systems and devices by combining the dual aspects of hardware and software.
We are carrying out research on making a robot smart in the same way a human is. We are aiming at a (therapeutic) robot that can find an acquaintance (person detection, face detection, face recognition), determine whether the person is in a good mood from their facial expression (facial expression recognition), understand what they are saying from the movement of their lips and audio (speech recognition), become attached to people like a pet does, and can render services like a housemaid does. This can be realized by constructing an information processing model of a human's brain
on a computer and using hardware called LSI. This model of a brain can be used in many things: a security system that can pinpoint anybody acting suspicious via video and then contact a security company, a security guard system that can identify the face of a registered person and them allow the into a building, a cancer diagnosis support system that can identify cancerous areas in an X-ray and then inform the doctor, and we are promoting our research and development in cooperation with industry and medical departments.
We are also operating a university-launched venture company (Takumi Vision Co., Ltd.).
Development of a socioeconomic system that cyclically uses limited earth resources at an appropriate level is an important task to achieve a sustainable society, given an increasing and increasingly wealthy global population. Our laboratory intends to conduct research that contributes to the development of such a socioeconomic system from the viewpoint of a systems analysis approach. Our work will answer the following questions confronting Japan and the world:
- - What is sustainable resource and waste management? How should progress to a sustainable resource and waste management be measured and assessed?
- - What is the status of material cycles in our society? What will it be in the future? What technological systems of resource and waste management should be developed?
- - What are people's attitudes related to sustainable resource and waste management? What social systems such as regulations and incentives should be developed for the formation of sustainable resource and waste management?
In the technological development, designing innovative materials is crucially important. However, it remains difficult to design desirable materials from purely theoretical prediction. This is because complex physical systems may exhibit behavior that cannot be understood only in terms of the laws governing their microscopic constituents, as indicated by P.W. Anderson. For example, superconductivity is a phenomenon that shows quantum-mechanical effects on a macroscopic scale. Here we need its own fundamental principles, largely different from the laws governing individual electrons. In our group, we work on clarifying curious physical properties in some topical magnetic/superconducting materials based on the electronic structures, and constructing new theoretical concepts. In addition, we aim to make predictions of novel properties and new quantum phases, and design new high-temperature superconductors from the long-term perspective.
A river can be regarded as a bundle of flow lines. Foliations are abstract generalization of such geometric structures. Namely, a foliation on a space is a decomposition of the space into spaces of smaller dimension. I am interested in the geometry and topology of foliations. They have been studied in these 50 years originally motivated by the research on partial differential equations and dynamics on 2-dimensional spaces. The relation of foliation theory to 3-manifolds, group actions and differential geometry is also actively studied. I am investigating global geometric properties of foliations from the viewpoint of cohomology and characteristic classes. The goal of my recent research is to understand mysterious phenomena on foliations called “rigidity”, which means that certain special foliations with large symmetry have distinguished dynamical properties.
We are exploring functional materials through atomic-orbitalcontrolled excitation by synchrotron radiation (SR) in the SR Center.
SR is very powerful light ranging from infrared light to ultraviolet light to x-ray. At the SR center in this campus, we easily access this useful light. Selecting an appropriate light through a beam line from SR, an element-specific excitation is realized, such as C, N, O in organic materials, Si in semiconductors, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni in magnetic devices, and so on. So, we can obtain the information of the element we want to know in the functional materials.
In addition, a polarization of SR light leads to an atomic-orbital-specific excitation. This enables us to know the orientation of the functional atomicorbital.
Information is the commodity of the 21st century. With an average person consuming over 35 Gbytes of data per day, communications systems need to cope with the contrasting requirements of lower costs, higher speeds, lower power consumption, raising numbers of users, and increasing availability. Under such conditions, wireless communication is a key technology for the development of economies and societies the world over. My research in Wireless Communications and Signal Processing for Wireless Systems spans from theory to application, focusing on the improvement of datarates, energy efficiency, user capacity, reliability, security and flexibility of wireless systems, both for large and small networks. Topics of interest include: Physical Layer Security, Interference Alignment, Small Cell Networks, Massive MIMO Systems, Cognitive Radio, Random Wireless Networks, Energy Harvesting Networks, Communication Theory, Information Theory, Compressed Sensing, Estimation Theory, High-precision Ranging Systems, Wireless Localization, Adaptive Antenna Arrays, Random Matrix Theory for Signal Processing and more.
Autonomous or automated vehicle systems are aggressively researched in the world. As an example, autonomous driving of automobiles is not a dream. These systems are considered to make innovations and change the world. Our laboratory researches the key technologies on artificial intelligence, computer vision, control, and system integration for advanced vehicles because these technologies must be integrated closely and robustly to realize the systems. As applications, we have developed or are developing automated driving systems of automobiles including platooning and automatic parking, agricultural robots in farm field or orchard, unmanned aerial vehicles like outdoor or indoor blimps and VTOLs with multi rotors. In relation to these technologies, our laboratory also researches human support systems in walking, cycling, and driving a car to support humans naturally and safely.
Our major research efforts have been focused on computer vision and human-computer interaction for medical images. The goal of our researches is to let computers help physicians in the image interpretation process. In computer vision, we have been developing image processing techniques such as a filter bank for enhancing lesions in medical images, a subtraction technique for visualizing lesions, and a super-resolution technique for improving image resolution and image quality. In human-computer interaction, we have been developing a computerized scheme for evaluating the likelihood of malignancy and/or histological classifications on lesion by using pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. We also investigate if the proposed methods are useful for improving the diagnostic accuracy and for reducing the interpretation time in observer study and clinical practice.
Recently, our multimedia environment is developing and changing rapidly.
Furthermore, mobile devices have spread with the rapid development of embedded LSI architecture.
For contributing to the further development of above technologies, our laboratory focuses several novel massively parallel LSI architectures and its applied multimedia systems.
The proposed massively parallel LSI architectures are based on a Content Addressable Memory (CAM), a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) hardware, etc.
The applied multimedia systems are deal with image data, sensing data, etc.
Latest research topics for realizing effective multimedia data processing are multi-ported and process variability-used CAM, intermittent-sensing image sensor node, highly implementable watermarking, human-like digital image forensics, spy-photo prevention system, hardware Trojan detection and more.
The research interests of our group may be encapsulated as "Sustainable Materials, Processes and Production". Our laboratory is grappling with the development of materials and processes, and their environmental impact assessment from multidimensional (present, past and future; local, domestic, and global) viewpoints. More academically, our research fields consist of natural science (materials science, thermodynamics and transport phenomena, etc.) supported by industrial ecology (material flow analysis, life-cycle assessment, environmental system engineering, etc.), and sometimes experimental archaeology. Current targets are metals (iron, nickel, zinc, copper and related scarce metals), phosphorus and foods, and related processes. With regard to these particular products, we focus not only natural mines but also urban mines that were thought of as waste.
Our laboratory is researching (1) Non-destructive testing of materials such as concrete, metal and rubber, (2) Porous concrete for sustainable environment, (3) Development of new materials or structures. (1) In order to use infrastructures long term, the maintenance technique with high accuracy is needed. (2) Porous concrete are known as good materials for improvement of water quality. We are researching to apply in any other application. (3) We are researching development a new material for sustainable infrastructures.