To organise, is to bring into working relations with one another certain forces which, aiming at an identical object, have been up to that time acting more or less independently, The identical object in the matter before us is right relief of the poor. The dorces in independent action to effect this object have been as many as five.

  1. The Poor Law, administering State relief to the destitute, according to areas of civil parishes.
  2. The Magistrate, rendering casual help, from the contributions of special donors, to those who come before him in his court.
  3. Ecclesiastical bodies, distributing church charity to their clients, partly by areas of districts, partly in accordance with denominational grouping.
  4. Benevolent institutions, rendering public assistance to special cases, which either have local claims or the recommendation of subscribers.
  5. Private aid, generally given in pursuit of mere privte knowledge.