Since ancient times, humanity has been gazing at the stars in wonder and has striven to explore as they dreamt of space. NASA’s Artemis Program aims to begin constructing a lunar base camp by 2028 that will allow sustained expeditions and space exploration. Space exploration seeks to unravel the mysteries of the universe. At the same time, its scope has broadened from the traditional type of exploration that sought to unravel the origin and evolution of the solar system to present investigative research that seeks to expand the humanosphere and construct living spaces. In this issue, we introduce how Ritsumeikan University is engaged in various aspects of this investigative research and other space-related research.