テクニック編

クロス履修をするIR専攻学生へ

※IR専攻でクロス履修を希望する学⽣は必ず本⽂を読んで授業に臨んでください。

1. Writing Style

(Revised: French Thomas)

When you write an essay, please follow the rules below. Essays should conform to the following guidelines for all GS classes (other than where exceptions are permitted by the class instructor or required by a particular research methodology).

  1. 1) Do NOT refer to yourself or the reader, i.e. do not use “I”, “your”, "one", "you", "we", etc.
    • If this is unavoidable use 'the author' or 'the reader'.
  2. 2) Do NOT start sentences with: but/and/because/then/so.
  3. 3) Do NOT use 'etc.'
  4. 4) Avoid colloquial language and slang such as:
    • 'Nowadays', 'Everyone knows that', ‘it is said that’, ‘all in all’, ‘in a nutshell’, ‘generally speaking’, ‘as you know’
  5. 5) Avoid value judgements – i.e. saying something is ‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘sad’, ‘evil’ etc.
  6. 6) Use either UK or US spellings, NOT a mix of both
  7. 7) Use the following punctuation conventions:
    • The period is placed AFTER the close of speech marks: "quotation".
    • If including a citation after a direct quote the order of punctuation is: "quotation" (citation).
  8. 8) ‘International Relations’ is only capitalised when referring to the academic subject of IR.
  9. 9) You are writing an essay or paper, not an ‘article’, do not refer to it as such.

Layout

  1. 1) Include the date of submission, your student number and names (full name and preferred name) in romaji on the first page.
  2. 2) In essays for GS classes (non applicable to Academic Skills) do NOT include
    • an abstract
    • a contents list
    • a 'running head'
  3. 3) Footnote/endnote text should be 10 point, single line spaced and left justified.
  4. 4) Decimals are to be expressed using a period, i.e. '6.5'.
  5. 5) There should be only ONE space after a period.

Please note the followings:

  1. 1) Not adhering to these guidelines will result in the reduction of your grade.
  2. 2) Essays submitted late will not be accepted, except at the instructor’s discretion.

2. Referencing and Plagiarism

剽窃⾏為(ひょうせつこうい、Plagiarism)について

  • What Is Plagiarism?
  • What Are the Consequences for Plagiarizing? How Can We Avoid Plagiarizing?
  • What Is Common Knowledge?
  • References and Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Using Japanese Sources
  • Translation Software
  • Sample Essay in APA Style and Other Necessary Information

What Is Plagiarism?

In your assignments, you may use information (facts, figures, statistics, and ideas) from various sources (books, journals, and the Internet, for example) for which you will provide an analysis of the information and show your own perspective on the material. When using other people’s ideas or words, however, it must be clear to the reader exactly which parts of your essay have been borrowed from a source. This is called acknowledging the source. Everything that is not common knowledge or originally yours needs to be cited and referenced. (See also “What is Common Knowledge?”)

Plagiarism is using information, ideas or language from a source in an assignment without properly acknowledging the source of the information. To plagiarize is considered academic dishonesty, and this is true even if you do not do it on purpose. Students could easily fail an assignment or the course if they plagiarize. (See “Consequences for Plagiarizing” below). Therefore, it is very important for students to understand what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. Please read the following carefully:

  1. 1) If you copy and paste or retype the exact language from a source (even a single sentence) into your own work, use quotation marks (“ ”) to show that the words are not your own and acknowledge the source of the words with an in-text citation (see citations section below), including the specific page number if it is a print source, for example. If you don’t use quotation marks and acknowledge the source, it is plagiarism even if the content is common knowledge. In short, all cutting and pasting from a source without acknowledging the source is plagiarism!
  2. 2) If you take information or ideas from a source (even a single sentence), but you are not quoting the exact language, you must be very careful to paraphrase or summarize properly in your own words and acknowledge the source. Change the sentence structure. (See also the section on “Paraphrasing”.) If you just change some of the words or just the word order, it is plagiarism, even if you acknowledge the source.
  3. 3) If you use information that you have learned previously from a source (even a long time ago), it is plagiarism unless you acknowledge the original source. If you can’t find the original source, you can substitute another source containing the same information, but do not automatically assume that because you know about something, it is common knowledge.
  4. 4) If you are writing a whole paragraph (or more) based on information or ideas from a source, it is not good enough to indicate the source just once at the end of the paragraph. You need to begin by indicating the source (i.e. According to〜) and make sure every sentence based on the source has some kind of attribution to the source to indicate where the information originally came from. Within a paragraph, you can do that with cohesive devices such as repeating the author's name or using a pronoun. If you start a new paragraph, you have to use the full citation format again. Please note that the use of “ibid.” is not allowed in APA style.

What Are the Consequences for Plagiarizing? How Can We Avoid plagiarizing?

Instructors can often recognize plagiarism in an assignment. Assignments that have been plagiarized can be recognized because the style is not the same as other work done by the same student, or work done by other students of the same level. Additionally, students may be asked to upload their assignment on Turnitin or other plagiarism detection software; instructors also have access to such software. If your instructor determines that you have plagiarized, one of several courses of action may be taken. The action taken will depend on the type of assignment, the type and amount of plagiarism within the assignment, and other factors:

  1. 1) You may be instructed to rewrite the assignment either in part or in its entirety.
  2. 2) You could receive a failing grade (“F”), or zero, for the assignment.
  3. 3) You could fail the class for which the assignment was written.
  4. 4) In non-Japanese universities particularly, you could be expelled from your department or the university.

Note: After students have been informed about plagiarism through this Web site and in class, it will be very hard to claim that you did not know you were plagiarizing.

By now, you can see how essential it is to include in-text citations (citations within the essay) and a complete reference list (a list of sources of information) at the end of the paper for all borrowed sources in written assignments.

What Is Common Knowledge?

Common knowledge, such as the fact that the sun rises in the east, does not require citation. This is because all or most people are expected to know the information. Unfortunately, even experts on writing do not always agree about what constitutes common knowledge. Your teacher can help you to decide, but below are some guidelines that may be useful when deciding if information that you wish to include in your assignment could qualify as common knowledge. Remember, if you are not sure, it is better to be on the safe side; add a citation. The list below would generally be considered as common knowledge:

  1. 1) Major historical events and dates (World War II ended in 1945)
  2. 2) Geographic areas (Japan, New York City, The Nile River, The Sahara Desert)
  3. 3) Famous people (Martin Luther King, Jr.)
  4. 4) Well-known current events or issues (global warming, the war in Iraq)
Some people also include:
  1. 1) Information that can be found in any dictionary (but definitions from a dictionary must be cited)
  2. 2) Common sayings (“Time flies!”); however, common sayings are not ordinarily included in essays and reports.
  3. 3) Purdue University’s OWL provides the following: “Generally speaking, you can regard something as common knowledge if you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources.” It also says, “When in doubt, cite.” from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/02/

References and Citations

Unless your instructor indicates otherwise, please set your font to Times New Roman, 12 points, and 1.5 space everything in your paper including the list of references. Body text should be fully justified (i.e., it has a straight right edge). Note that the list of references should begin on a new page with the word “References” (centered) at the top of the page. Everything in the list must be 1.5-spaced, too, with the second line of each item indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. Please do not use any fancy spacing anywhere (i.e. between items in the reference list or in between paragraphs), no bold, and no italics for paper titles.

What is APA style?

Style guidelines ensure that written texts follow a clear and consistent format. The American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines are most commonly used by researchers or writers in the social sciences. The APA guidelines give examples of the general format of papers, in-text citations, and references, and are published as Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition. Purdue University’s OWL at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ also provides a useful overview of APA style rules. In the following pages, we will give an overview of the very basic rules for citing and referencing some print sources. These rules provide a basis for understanding how to cite and reference other online sources, with or without authors, but because these rules are complex and are still undergoing change, students are asked to look for further information in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition or the overview provided by Purdue University’s OWL at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ as well as the current APA Style Guide for Electronic References for citing online.

Note: There is no need to memorize rules. Check the rules as needed for assignments.

References (Basic Rules)

All the sources of information used to write an assignment should appear alphabetically in a reference list in APA style at the end of your assignment. This will allow the reader to see the number and type of sources used, and to locate the sources as needed. You should use a variety of print (books, journals, magazines and newspapers, for example) and Internet sources; don’t rely on a limited number or type of source. This document will only deal with the very basic rules of APA style, taking up only print sources.

Some general rules for references:

  1. 1) In general, all sources included in your reference list/ bibliography should be cited somewhere in your assignment, and all citations in your assignment should be included in the reference list/ bibliography.
  2. 2) The exception to the above rule is personal communication (emails you have received from individuals or interviews you have conducted with individuals) that you have used as a source for an assignment. They are cited in the text but not included in the reference list.
  3. 3) Sources in the reference list are listed in alphabetical order according to the first letter of the family name of the author of the source, or, if there is no author, the first letter of the title of the source.
  4. 4) All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented half an inch, or 1.27cm from the left hand margin.
  5. 5) The use of the following sources is unacceptable:
    • Wikipedia
    • Lectures or lecture notes

Some basic rules for writing a reference list for print sources

The following examples cover various print sources (with and without an author). For information not covered in the examples below, please go to: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Note: The way the authors are listed differs according to the total number of authors.

*Books (with an author or several authors)

Altrichter H., Posch P. & Somekh B. (1993). Teachers investigate their work: An introduction to the methods of action research. London: Routledge.
Byrd, P. & Reid, J.M. (1998). Grammar in the composition classroom. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Murakami, H. (2002). Umibe no Kafuka (Kafka on the shore). Tokyo: Shinchosha.
Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Wetzel, P. J. (2004). Keigo in modern Japan: Polite language from Meiji to the present. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii‘ Press.

Note:

  1. 1) The author’s family name is written in full and followed by only the initial of the author’s first name.
  2. 2) The title of the book is in italics. All titles of longer works such as books, academic journals, magazines and newspapers (i.e. New York Times, Asahi Evening News) must be italicized.
  3. 3) Capitalization rule for book reference: Author, A. (publication year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. City, NY: Publisher. If a proper noun is used in the book title, keep the capitalization in the title. (i.e. Kafka in the third example and Japan and Meiji in the fifth example above.)
  4. 4) If the publisher is located in the U.S., include the name of the city and the state, using the two-letter abbreviation without periods (i.e. NY; TX; NJ). For an official list of U.S. postal abbreviations, see:
    https://www.usps.com/send/official-abbreviations.htm

*Journal Articles

Darwall, S. (1999). Sympathetic liberalism: Recent work on Adam Smith. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 28, 139-164.
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Note:

  1. 1) For journals, the title of the article used for the assignment is not in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title and the first letter of the subtitle of the journal article. Proper nouns in article titles must also be capitalized (i.e. “Adam Smith” in the above example).
  2. 2) The title of the journal and volume number are in italics. The first letter of all the major words in the title of the journal is also capitalized.
  3. 3) The page numbers of the article must be included (not in italics and with no “pp.”).
  4. 4) The issue number is only included if the journal is paginated by issue, i.e. each issue starts with page one.
  5. 5) In case of electronic journals, you have to include the URL after the phrase “Retrieved from”. For more on citing online sources, see the APA Style Guide on Electronic References.

*Newspaper or Magazine Article (with an author)

Henry, W.A. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Note:

  1. 1) The date includes year, month and day.
  2. 2) The title of the newspaper or magazine article is not in italics and only the first letter is capitalized. The rest is in lower case except the first letter of proper nouns.
  3. 3) The name of the newspaper or magazine is in italics. The first letter of all major words in the name of the newspaper or magazine is capitalized.

*Newspaper or Magazine Article (with no author)

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

Note:

  1. 1) If there is no author, use the title of the article (not in italics).
  2. 2) The date includes the year, month and day.
  3. 3) The title is not in italics; the name of the newspaper or magazine is in italics.
  4. 4) The page number (i.e., p. A12) where the information can be found is included.

*Article or Chapter in an Edited Book.

Gerhardt, U. (1999). National socialism and the politics of the structure of social action. In B. Barber and U. Gerhardt (Eds.), Agenda for sociology: Classic sources and current uses of Talcott Parsons’s work (pp. 87-164). BadenBaden: Nomos.
Mills, S. (2011). Communities of practice and politeness. In Bethan L.Davies, Michael Haugh & John Merrison (Eds.), Situated politeness (pp. 73-87). New York, NY: Continuum International.

Note:

  1. 1) Author, A. Title of chapter or article: Subtitle follows. (publication year). In Editor A, Editor B & Editor C (Eds.), Title of book (pp. pages of chapter or article). City, ST: Publisher.
  2. 2) Page numbers are preceded by “pp.”

For further information, please check the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) or the Purdue OWL website.

In-text citations (Basic Rules)

In-text citations are citations located within the actual text of your assignment. They are an essential part of an assignment and must be included along with a complete reference list. The use of citations allows the reader to identify which sections of the assignment are borrowed from a source and which sections of the assignment are your ideas. It also helps the reader check and/or find the source, should the need arise.

Some general rules for in-text citations:

  1. 1) You must cite all information and ideas that are borrowed from a source. Citations are based on information about your sources that is contained in the reference list at the end of your assignment. (Exception: citations for personal communication, such as a personal email or an interview that you have done yourself are cited in the text but the source is not included in the reference list.)
    • *A. S. Smith claimed that building more roads increased rather than decreased traffic in large cities (personal communication, February 15, 2007).
    • *Building more roads can increase, not decrease, traffic in large cities (A. S. Smith, personal communication, February 15, 2007). (Disclaimer: This is a hypothetical example)
  2. 2) Both direct quotes and paraphrases require a citation.
  3. 3) Citations for direct quotes must include a page number (or a section heading or the paragraph number in cases where the source is online) to show where specifically the quote came from. In general, if you use a specific part of a source (in contrast to what the source as a whole says), it is better to include specific information “anyway”.
  4. 4) If you are not sure if a citation is needed, use a citation just to be safe.
  5. 5) If a source has an author, the citation includes the author’s last name and the date. If a source has no author, the citation includes the title of the source (a long title will be shortened) and the date.

Some specific rules for in-text citations for print sources:

The following in-text citation examples cover various print sources (with and without an author). For information not covered in the examples below, please check the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) or the Purdue OWL website at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Quotations (exact words from a source) of less than 40 words (with an author) in a print source

Original:

One of the most controversial aspects of writing pedagogy has been the tension between process and product approaches to the teaching of writing. Product-oriented approaches focus on the final product, the coherent, error-free text. Process approaches, on the other hand, focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of work.

Source: Second Language Teaching and Learning by Nunan, D., published in 1999. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

According to Nunan (1999), “One of the most controversial aspects of writing pedagogy has been the tension between process and product approaches to the teaching of writing” (p. 272).

Note:

  1. 1) The original source for the citations (above) is included in the reference list at the end of the paper as: Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
  2. 2) Quotation marks show that exact language has been borrowed from a source. Direct quotations must be exactly the same as the original source.
  3. 3) The citation includes the author’s last name, the date, and the page number. All direct quotations must try to include the specific location (i.e. page number, paragraph number, or section heading, if there is no page number) where the quotation can be found.
  4. 4) The author’s name is inserted into the sentence with the date in parenthesis, and the page number at the end of the quote (use paragraph number or section heading if there is no page number available).
  5. 5) Citations at the end of a sentence are inserted before the final period.
  6. 6) Be careful not to rely too heavily on direct quotations.

Quotations of 40 words or longer (with an author) must be block quoted:

According to Nunan (1999):
One of the most controversial aspects of writing pedagogy has been the tension between process and product approaches to the teaching of writing. Product-oriented approaches focus on the final product, the coherent, error-free text. Process approaches, on the other hand, focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of work. (p. 272)
This tension can be seen in …

Note:

  1. 1) Long quotations are set apart from the text and indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. This is the same location as the indentation for new paragraphs.
  2. 2) For block quotations, do not use quotation marks.
  3. 3) The page number (or para. number or section heading in the case of online sources) in parenthesis follows the quote. Leave one space between the final period of the quoted material and the parenthesis.
  4. 4) If you block quote more than one paragraph, indent another 1/2 inch to begin the new paragraph.
  5. 5) If you want to omit part of the quotation, use ellipses: “Process approaches . . . focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of work” (Nunan, 1999, p. 272). Leave a space in between the dots.

Citing indirect sources

Primary sources and secondary sources: Examples of primary sources are speeches, letters, and public documents, which are original and first-hand. An example of a secondary source is a journal article, which analyzes and/or interprets other primary as well as secondary sources. In other words, secondary sources will typically include other secondary sources. If you want to cite a source that is cited in another source, this is called citing indirect sources. Try to go back to the original source to make sure that the information is accurate and use the original in your in-text citation and list of references.

However, if you need to cite an indirect source in your paper, signal the original source at the beginning of the sentence and include the source in the parenthesis, as follows: “Thompson claimed that ... (as cited in Smith, 1998, p. 52). Then list Smith’s work in your list of references.

Paraphrasing information and ideas from a source (with an author)

Original:

One of the most controversial aspects of writing pedagogy has been the tension between process and product approaches to the teaching of writing. Product-oriented approaches focus on the final product, the coherent, error-free text. Process approaches, on the other hand, focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of work.

Source: Second Language Teaching and Learning by Nunan, D., published in 1999. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Whether to teach writing by using a product approach or a process approach has been an issue for debate (Nunan, 1999).

or

Nunan (1999) asserts that whether to teach writing by using a product approach or a process approach has been an issue for debate.

Note:

  1. 1) The original source for the citations (above) is included in the reference list as: Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
  2. 2) The form of citations (see above) is the same whether quoting or paraphrasing. However, no page number is required with a paraphrase. Please note also that APA style recommends including the specific information (page number, section heading, para. number), too, if the source is from a very specific part of the larger work.
  3. 3) To paraphrase, express the basic meaning from the source using wording and sentence structure that is completely your own. Changing just a few words is plagiarism, even when accompanied by a citation.

Paraphrasing long sections of a print source (with an author)

Original:

One of the most controversial aspects of writing pedagogy has been the tension between process and product approaches to the teaching of writing. Product-oriented approaches focus on the final product, the coherent, error-free text. Process approaches, on the other hand, focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of work.

Source: Second Language Teaching and Learning by Nunan, D., published in 1999. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Nunan (1999) discusses two approaches to teaching writing, which are quite different in focus and emphasis. In a product approach, the goal is to produce a final paper which is grammatically correct and easy to follow, whereas in the process approach, the act of writing and rewriting in an effort to produce an improved paper is most important (Nunan, p. 272).

Note:

  1. 1) To paraphrase, you must completely change wording and sentence structure.
  2. 2) In the paraphrased passage, it is crystal clear that the entire passage comes from Nunan. APA style allows you to omit the publication year if you are using the same source repeatedly within the same paragraph. However, if you use the same source in another paragraph (i.e. the next paragraph), you need to repeat the publication year. You need to be thorough. The page number listed in the above example is not absolutely necessary but is recommended.
  3. 3) You should avoid too many paraphrases from the same source in one single assignment. Make sure you use various sources and include your own ideas and analysis.

For information on how to quote or paraphrase from an online source, check the APA Web site of Purdue University at:
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Paraphrasing

To paraphrase is to borrow information or ideas from a source, but to express it in words and sentence structure that are completely your own. Beware: changing just a few words is not paraphrasing; it is plagiarism, even when accompanied by a citation. Moreover, paraphrased language must be accompanied by a citation because although the words are yours, the information or ideas have been borrowed from a source written by somebody else, which must be acknowledged.

Original:

One of the most controversial aspects of writing pedagogy has been the tension between process and product approaches to the teaching of writing. Product-oriented approaches focus on the final product, the coherent, error-free text. Process approaches, on the other hand, focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of work.

Source: Second Language Teaching and Learning by Nunan, D., published in 1999. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Unacceptable paraphrase

According to Nunan (1999), a controversial aspect of writing pedagogy has been the debate about whether to use a process or product approach when teaching writing. Product-oriented approaches are concerned with the final product, which should be coherent and error-free. Process approaches, however, focus on writing and rewriting a text. [The underlined sections are too close to the original]

Acceptable paraphrase

Is it better to use a product or a process approach when teaching writing? According to Nunan (1999), the two approaches are quite different in emphasis. In a product approach, the goal is to produce a final paper which is grammatically correct and easy to follow, whereas in the process approach, it is the act of writing and rewriting in an effort to produce an improved paper that is most important (Nunan, p. 272).

Advice for writing acceptable paraphrases:

  1. 1) Read the relevant section of the source.
  2. 2) Do not try to memorize the passage; just try to understand the basic meaning.
  3. 3) Without looking at the source, rewrite the ideas in your own words.
  4. 4) Compare your finished notes with the source to be sure your facts are correct.
  5. 5) Check to be sure that you have expressed the original meaning from the source in language that is very different in wording and sentence structure.

Using Japanese Sources:

Some of you may wish to include some Japanese sources when writing a paper in English. Below you will see the source in the original Japanese and the source as it should be listed in the reference list at the end of your essay.

Japanese Books

Original Japanese:
『アセスメントと⽇本語教育』、著者:佐藤慎司・熊⾕由理、くろしお出版、2012年
The source should be listed in an English reference list as follows:
Sato, S & Kumagai, Y. (2010). Asesumento Nihongo kyoiku [Japanese education assessment]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan

Note:

  1. 1) The information should be organized in the same way as an English source.
  2. 2) The information should be written entirely in romaji, with a rough translation of the title included in square brackets just after the romaji version of the title.
  3. 3) Japanese sources should be included in the reference list in alphabetical order along with your English sources.

Translation Software

You can use translation software (sometimes called machine-translation) in the process of trying to understand what is written in a source, but when you include the information in your essay, you need to rewrite the passage to make sure that it makes sense and include proper citation and documentation, just like you would for any other source of information that is neither uniquely yours or common knowledge. The use of translation software to write all or part (even a single sentence) of an assignment without proper documentation is prohibited as academically dishonest. If your teacher determines that you have been academically dishonest, you will face the same kind of sanctions as you would for “regular” plagiarism.

Sample Essay and Other Necessary Information:

Please see the following for a sample paper written in APA style, which includes information on how to write a title page with a running head, an abstract and the first page of a paper: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/

For a list of common abbreviations (i.e., etc.) in APA style:
https://blog.apastyle.org/files/apa-latin-abbreviations-table-2.pdf

Contributor: Julia K. Harper, Revised: Eigobukai
更新者:国際関係学部英語部会
更新日:2021年3月10日